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Complementary Sets of Systems of Congruences (by Jeffrey F. Gold and Don H. Tucker)

# Complementary Sets of Systems of Congruences (by Jeffrey F. Gold and Don H. Tucker)

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Proceedings - NCUR VII. (1993), Vol. II, pp. 793-796.

Jeffrey F. Gold
Department of Mathematics, Department of Physics
University of Utah

Don H. Tucker
Department of Mathematics
University of Utah

Introduction

We introduce remodulization and use it to characterize the complementary sets of systems of congruences. The following is an excerpt of a continuing effort to characterize systems of congruences.
Proceedings - NCUR VII. (1993), Vol. II, pp. 793-796.

Jeffrey F. Gold
Department of Mathematics, Department of Physics
University of Utah

Don H. Tucker
Department of Mathematics
University of Utah

Introduction

We introduce remodulization and use it to characterize the complementary sets of systems of congruences. The following is an excerpt of a continuing effort to characterize systems of congruences.

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Chapter4
ComplementarySetsOf   SystemsOfCongruences
Proceedings|NCURVII.1993,Vol.II,pp.793796.
JereyF.Gol
DepartmentofMathematics,DepartmentofPhysics UniversityofUtah
DonH.Tucke
DepartmentofMathematics UniversityofUtah
Introductio
Weintroduceremodulizationanduseittocharacterizethecomplementarysetofsystemsofcongruences.Thefollowingisanexcerptofacontinuingeorttcharacterizesystemsofcongruences
Remodulization
Denition
I
an
areintegers,then
mo
a;

b;

b;:::
Wewillwrit

amod
,meaningthat
isanelementofthese
amod
Thesymbo

isnotanequalitysymbol,butratheraspecializedformofthe 
"orisanelementof
::
"symbol.Thecommonterminologyistosaythat

CHAPTER4.COMP.SETSOFSYSTEMSOFCONGRUENCE
iscongruentt
modul
.Thesesetsarealsofrequentlycalledresidueclasses sincetheyconsistofthoseintegerswhich,upondivisionby
,leavearemainder residueof
.Itiscustomarytowrit
astheleastnon-negativeresidue.
Denition
I
;
;:::;a
,then

;
;:::;a
mo
=
mo



mo



mo

=
mo
b
Theorem
RemodulizationTheoremSuppos
,and
an
c
the
mo
=
a;
b;:::;a

1mod
cb
Proof
Wewrit
mo
:::
cb;

1
b;:::
ba;
b;:::
+
1
b
cb;
+
+1
b;:::
+
1
b;::
anduponrewritingthecolumns
mo
:::
cb;
cb;:::
+
1
cba;
b;:::
+
1
b
cb;
cb;:::
+
1
cb;::
Then,formingunionsonthe
extended
columns,theresultfollowsWerefertothisprocessasremodulizationbyafactorc
ComplementarySet
UsingDenition2,thecomplementarysetof
amod
isgivenby 
mo

n
mo
=
;:::;a
;
+
;:::;b
1mod
b
Inthiscase,thecomplementarysetconsistsof
1congruence
modulo
.Wwillalwaysrefertothesizeofacomplementarysetwithrespecttoaspecic modulusThefollowingrepresentsasystemofcongruences
8         :

mo

mo

mo
4.1

CHAPTER4.COMP.SETSOFSYSTEMSOFCONGRUENCE
inasystematicwayNotethat
canbewrittenasacompleteresidueclass,
;:::;b

mod
,for al
b
mo

mo

mo



=
mo

wherethe
arepairwiserelativelyprime.Ourmethodistodeterminethe numberofremainingcongruencesneededtocharacterizethiscomplementarset.Usingtheremodulizationmethod,thesetofcongruencescanbeexpresseintermsofthecommonmodulus
mo
Q
=
andtheintegers
,canbeexpressedintermsofacompleteresidueclassofthe
sam
modulusToillustratethisprocedure,supposewehavethefollowingsystemofcon- gruences


mo

mo
wher
gc

;
=1.Byth
ChineseRemainderTheore
1,2,these intersectinauniqueresidueclas
modulo
Remodulizingthecongruencesby
an
,respectively,thissystemcanbexpressedas

mo
=
;
;:::;a

1mod
mo
=
;
;:::;a

1mod
Therstcongruence,afterremodulization,consistsof
congruences
modb
whilethesecondremodulizedcongruenceconsistsof
congruences
mod
furthermore
consistsof
congruences
modulo
.Therefore,subtractin
an
fro
,weobtai
+remainingcongruence
mod
inthecomplementaryse
mo

mo
