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Complementary Sets of Systems of Congruences (by Jeffrey F. Gold and Don H. Tucker)

Complementary Sets of Systems of Congruences (by Jeffrey F. Gold and Don H. Tucker)

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Published by Jeffrey Gold
Proceedings - NCUR VII. (1993), Vol. II, pp. 793-796.

Jeffrey F. Gold
Department of Mathematics, Department of Physics
University of Utah

Don H. Tucker
Department of Mathematics
University of Utah

Introduction

We introduce remodulization and use it to characterize the complementary sets of systems of congruences. The following is an excerpt of a continuing effort to characterize systems of congruences.
Proceedings - NCUR VII. (1993), Vol. II, pp. 793-796.

Jeffrey F. Gold
Department of Mathematics, Department of Physics
University of Utah

Don H. Tucker
Department of Mathematics
University of Utah

Introduction

We introduce remodulization and use it to characterize the complementary sets of systems of congruences. The following is an excerpt of a continuing effort to characterize systems of congruences.

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Published by: Jeffrey Gold on Jan 25, 2010
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10/27/2012

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Chapter4   
ComplementarySetsOf   SystemsOfCongruences  
Proceedings|NCURVII.1993,Vol.II,pp.793796. 
JereyF.Gol
DepartmentofMathematics,DepartmentofPhysics UniversityofUtah 
DonH.Tucke
DepartmentofMathematics UniversityofUtah 
Introductio
Weintroduceremodulizationanduseittocharacterizethecomplementarysetofsystemsofcongruences.Thefollowingisanexcerptofacontinuingeorttcharacterizesystemsofcongruences
Remodulization 
Denition
I
an
areintegers,then 
mo
a;
 
b;
 
b;::: 
Wewillwrit
 
amod
,meaningthat 
isanelementofthese
amod
Thesymbo
 
isnotanequalitysymbol,butratheraspecializedformofthe  
"orisanelementof 
::
"symbol.Thecommonterminologyistosaythat 
 
CHAPTER4.COMP.SETSOFSYSTEMSOFCONGRUENCE
iscongruentt
modul
.Thesesetsarealsofrequentlycalledresidueclasses sincetheyconsistofthoseintegerswhich,upondivisionby 
,leavearemainder residueof 
.Itiscustomarytowrit
astheleastnon-negativeresidue. 
Denition
I
;
;:::;a 
,then 
 
;
;:::;a 
mo
= 
mo
 
 
 
mo
 
 
 
mo
  
=
mo
b
Theorem
RemodulizationTheoremSuppos
,and 
an
c 
the
mo
= 
a;
b;:::;a 
 
1mod 
cb
Proof
Wewrit
mo
:::
cb;
 
1 
b;:::
ba;
b;:::
+ 
1 
b
cb;
+ 
+1 
b;:::
+
1 
b;::
anduponrewritingthecolumns
mo
:::
cb;
cb;:::
+ 
1 
cba;
b;:::
+ 
1 
b
cb;
cb;:::
+ 
1 
cb;::
Then,formingunionsonthe 
extended 
columns,theresultfollowsWerefertothisprocessasremodulizationbyafactorc
ComplementarySet
UsingDenition2,thecomplementarysetof 
amod
isgivenby  
mo
 
n
mo
=
;:::;a 
;
+
;:::;b 
1mod 
b
Inthiscase,thecomplementarysetconsistsof 
1congruence
modulo
.Wwillalwaysrefertothesizeofacomplementarysetwithrespecttoaspecic modulusThefollowingrepresentsasystemofcongruences
8         :  
 
mo
 
mo
 
mo
4.1 
 
CHAPTER4.COMP.SETSOFSYSTEMSOFCONGRUENCE
Characterizingthesizeofthecomplementarysetofasystemofcongruence4.1isequivalenttocountingthoseintegerswhicharenotelementsofanyofthe givencongruences.Ourmethodwillbetoremovethesetofnumberssatisfying thesystemofcongruences4.1fromthesetofinteger
inasystematicwayNotethat 
canbewrittenasacompleteresidueclass,
;:::;b 
 
mod
,for al
b 
1Allnumberssatisfyingtherstcongruencein4.1willberemovedfrom 
leavingthecomplementarysetforthatcongruence.Thenweiteratetheprocesbyremovingallintegerssatisfyingthesecondcongruencefromthisremaining set,andsoon. Statedanotherway,weareinterestedindeterminingthesizeof  
mo
 
mo
 
mo
 
 
  
=
mo
 
wherethe 
arepairwiserelativelyprime.Ourmethodistodeterminethe numberofremainingcongruencesneededtocharacterizethiscomplementarset.Usingtheremodulizationmethod,thesetofcongruencescanbeexpresseintermsofthecommonmodulus
mo
Q  
=
andtheintegers
,canbeexpressedintermsofacompleteresidueclassofthe 
sam
modulusToillustratethisprocedure,supposewehavethefollowingsystemofcon- gruences 
 
 
mo
 
mo
wher
gc
 
;
=1.Byth
ChineseRemainderTheore
1,2,these intersectinauniqueresidueclas
modulo
Remodulizingthecongruencesby 
an
,respectively,thissystemcanbexpressedas 
 
mo
= 
;
;:::;a 
 
1mod 
mo
= 
;
;:::;a 
 
1mod 
Therstcongruence,afterremodulization,consistsof 
congruences 
modb 
whilethesecondremodulizedcongruenceconsistsof 
congruences 
mod
furthermore
consistsof 
congruences 
modulo
.Therefore,subtractin
an
fro
andaddingonetothissumtheuniqueintersectionof thetwocongruenceswasremovedtwicefrom 
,weobtai
+remainingcongruence
mod
inthecomplementaryse 
mo
 
mo
 

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