improved compression eﬃciency, lossless and lossy compression, multi-resolution representation, RegionOf Interest (ROI) coding, error resilience and a ﬂexible ﬁle format.The aim of JPEG 2000 is not only improved compression performance over JPEG but also adding (orimproving) features such as scalability and editability. In fact, JPEG 2000’s improvement in compressionperformance relative to the original JPEG standard is actually rather modest and should not ordinarilybe the primary consideration for evaluating the design. Very low and very high compression rates aresupported in JPEG 2000. In fact, the graceful ability of the design to handle a very large range of eﬀectivebit rates is one of the strengths of JPEG 2000.Motion JPEG 2000 (often referenced as MJ2 or MJP2) is the leading digital ﬁlm standard currentlysupported by Digital Cinema Initiatives (a consortium of most major studios and vendors) for the storage,distribution and exhibition of motion pictures. Unlike common video codecs, such as MPEG-4, WMV, andDivX, MJ2 does not employ temporal or inter-frame compression. Instead, each frame is an independententity encoded by either a lossy or lossless variant of JPEG 2000.For more details on AVC please refer to .
2.3 Coding software
JM 13.2 is the reference software used for compression, it is written by the Fraunhofer Institute in Clanguage and its source code is freely available. Its the reference encoder, meaning its not optimized inany way for speed, but the implementation is safe and compliant to the standard; all parameters andcompression techniques are correctly taken into account.For our purposes the encoder was conﬁgured to use CABAC, LevelIDC 5.1, High proﬁle 4:4:4 subsam-pling, intraproﬁle enabled, no loopﬁlter and no rate control. Also, to ensure that the image was consideredas a unique slice, we forced ﬁxed number of macroblocks per image and no more that 9216 was allowed.This limited our image size to about 1536x1536 equivalent area. Quality scaling was achieved modifyingthe QP parameter, computing the corresponding bitrate and setting the JPEG 2000 encoder accordingly.
Kakadu is an implementation of Part 1 of the JPEG 2000 standard. It should be fully compliant withProﬁle-1, Class-2, as deﬁned in Part 4 of the standard, which describes compliance. Kakadu is platformindependent, and poses a special focus on computational eﬃciency, because of the complexity of the JPEG2000 algorithm.In our tests, we used the Windows version, that comes as a command line program. The usage of Kakadu is straightforward and, theoretically, does not require any knowledge of the standard it imple-ments. The two basic executable ﬁles that we used are
to create compressed ﬁles, and
to extract the coded ﬁles so as to measure the resulting image quality.The input ﬁle may be of many formats, also
is accepted and we used it. The output ﬁle iseither
. The desired coding rate is simply expressed in bpp, and passed as a parameter to the
option is used to avoid that the program writes useless informationin the output ﬁle header, so as to obtain the minimum possible ﬁle size.To know the details of the Kakadu software implementation, please refer to .
3 Metrics for codec comparison
We call metrics all the tests, both objective and subjective, that are carried out in order to
theperformance of an algorithm.
3.1 Objective tests
The objective metrics are aimed to give us a rigorous and scientiﬁc measure of the quality of the codedimages. To make this analysis we used the free tool
MSU Video Quality Measurement Tool
, that providesa large number of indicators. This tool is aimed to measure video sequences, but we chose it because of 3