Certifications: Subnetting Made Easy - written for my students at work
Posted by:lordflasheart - Product Manager and Support Technician, British
Telecommunications plc Oct 17, 2007, 4:51am PST
An IP address is made up of 32 bits, split into 4 octets. Some bits are reserved for identifying thenetwork and the other bits are left to identify the host.There are 3 main classes of IP address that we are concerned with.Class A Range 0 - 127 in the first octet (0 and 127 are, however, reserved)Class B Range 128 - 191 in the first octetClass C Range 192 - 223 in the first octetBelow shows you how, for each class, the address is split in terms of network (N) and host (H) portions. NNNNNNNN . HHHHHHHH . HHHHHHHH . HHHHHHHH Class A Address NNNNNNNN . NNNNNNNN . HHHHHHHH . HHHHHHHH Class B Address NNNNNNNN . NNNNNNNN . NNNNNNNN . HHHHHHHH Class C AddressAt each dot I like to think that there is a boundary, therefore there are boundaries after bits 8, 16, 24,and 32. This is an important concept to remember.Typical questions you may see are those asking what a host range is for a specific address or whichsubnet a certain address is located on. I shall run through examples of each, for each class of IPaddress.What subnet does 192.168.12.78/29 belong to?You may wonder where to begin. Well to start with let's find the next boundary of this address.Our mask is a /29. The next boundary is 32. So 32 - 29 = 3. Now 2^3 = 8 which gives us our block size.We have borrowed from the last octet as the 29th bit is in the last octet. We start from zero and countup in our block size. Therefore it follows that the subnets are:-192.168.12.019184.108.40.206220.127.116.1118.104.22.16822.214.171.124192.168.12.40192.168.12.48192.168.12.56192.168.12.64192.168.12.72192.168.12.80.............etcOur address is 192.168.12.78 so it must sit on the 192.168.12.72 subnet.What subnet does 172.16.116.4/19 sit on?