Plant life in Afghanistan is sparse but diverse. Common trees in themountains are evergreens, oaks, poplars, wild hazelnuts, almonds, and pistachios. The plains of the north are largely dry, treeless steppes, and thoseof the southwestern corner are nearly uninhabitable deserts. Common plantsin the arid regions include camel thorn, locoweed, spiny restharrow,mimosa, and wormwood, a variety of sagebrush.Most of Afghanistan has a subarctic mountain climate with dry and coldwinters, except for the lowlands, which have arid and semiarid climates. Inthe mountains and a few of the valleys bordering Pakistan, a fringe effect of the Indian monsoon, coming usually from the southeast, brings moistmaritime tropical air in summer. Afghanistan has clearly defined seasons:Summers are hot and winters can be bitterly cold. Summer temperatures ashigh as 49°C (120°F) have been recorded in the northern valleys. Midwinter temperatures as low as -9°C (15°F) are common around the 2,000-m (6,600-ft) level in the Hindu Kush. The climate in the highlands varies withelevation. The coolest temperatures usually occur on the heights of themountains.Temperatures often range greatly within a single day. Variations intemperature during the day may range from freezing conditions at dawn tothe upper 30°s C (upper 90°s F) at noon. Most of the precipitation falls between the months of October and April. The deserts receive less than 100mm (4 in) of rain a year, whereas the mountains receive more than 1,000mm (40 in) of precipitation, mostly as snow. Frontal winds sweeping in fromthe west may bring large sandstorms or dust storms, while the strong solar heating of the ground raises large local whirlwinds.
India is home to abundant plant and animal life and has a wide range of climates that accommodate a diversity of species throughout the country.Broadly classified, there are seven major regions for plant and animal life inIndia: the arid Indus Plain, the Gangetic Plain, the Himalayas, AssamValley, the Malabar Coast, the peninsular plateau, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.