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bioprocess:chocolate production A2Z

bioprocess:chocolate production A2Z

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Published by JyShe_la
theobroma cacao
theobroma cacao

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Published by: JyShe_la on Jan 26, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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University Malaysia Kelantan 2009
The cocoa tree (
Theobroma cacao
) is a native of the dense tropical Amazonforests, but wild varieties also occur from Mexico to Peru. The Mayas of Yucatanand the Aztecs of Mexico cultivated cocoa long before its introduction to Europe, andMontezuma, Emperor of the Aztecs, is stated to have consumed regularly a preparation called “chocolate made by roasting and grinding the cocoa nibs, followed by mashing with water, maize, anatto, chilli and spice flavours. The richness of thismixture no doubt had some connection with the Aztec belief that the cocoa tree wasof divine origin and later led the Swedish botanist, Linnaeus, to give the name“Theobroma” - Food of the Gods - to the genus including the cacao species. TheAztecs also considered the drink to have aphrodisiac properties.The genus Theobroma consists of some twenty-two species of small bushesand trees. Theobroma cacao is the only one of commercial value and this species isdivided into two main groups:
There is a third group known as “
” which is basically a cross of the two.95% of world production are used Forastero, but better quality is Criollo.In Malaysia, the first cocoa planted area was found in Melacca in 1778.Subsequently, the cocoa planting was started in a plotted area at Serdang AgricultureStation and Silam Agriculture Research Center, Sabah. The earliest cocoacommercialization started from 1853 to 1959 where cocoa types Amelonado was first planted at Jerangau, Terengganu. The planted area was 403 hectarages.Cocoa trial was further undertaken at Serdang, Cheras, Kuala Lipis andTemerloh from 1936 to 1940. However, cocoa was only actively planted after WorldWar II. Cocoa officially came to Quoin Hill, Tawau, Sabah in 1960. From then on,there was no turning back to cocoa fever.Malaysia is the seventh largest supplier of chocolate in the world. In Malaysia,the State of Sabah produces more than 70 per cent of the total production of cocoa beans (1998 data).University Malaysia Kelantan 2009
3Fermentation of cocoa is important before it can be used or consumed. Cocoais the most important ingredient in manufacturing chocolate. Differences in microbialactivities between different heap fermentations can result in dried fermented cocoa beans and chocolates with different flavour characteristics. Hence, fermentationcontrol may direct the flavour of chocolate.
Main ingredient used in the chocolate making process is cocoa beans.Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation is characterized by succession omicroorganisms’ activities such as yeast, Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) etc. There areUniversity Malaysia Kelantan 2009Cocoa treeInside of cocoa bean -nibsWell fermentedunroasted cocoaCocoa be
an in the pulp Natural cocoa powderButtecocoaMolten chocolateFermented beans

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