INTRODUCTION 3MAJOR FINDINGS 6REVITALIZING THE APPLE 7
An overview of the impact immigrant entrepreneurs arehaving on New York City’s economy.
SEEDS OF GROWTH 13
A proﬁle of ﬁve New York City neighborhoods transformedby immigrant entrepreneurs: Richmond Hill, Sunset Park,Brighton Beach, Flushing and Jackson Heights.
INDUSTRIAL STRENGTHS 17
Immigrant-run ﬁrms are putting their stamp on agrowing number of sectors, from food manufacturingto wedding services.
TAPPING IMMIGRANT ENTREPRENEURS 26FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH
The second part of this report focuses on the obstacles facingimmigrant entrepreneurs in New York and what policymakerscan do to support this growing part of the city’s economy.
SMALL BUSINESS BLUES 28
Immigrant entrepreneurs face many of the same barriers asother small businesses, including mounting real estate costs.
UNDERSTANDING RULES AND REGULATIONS 29
New York City’s regulatory environment can be a headachefor most entrepreneurs, but language and cultural barriersmake it particularly difﬁcult for immigrants.
Many nonproﬁt business assistance organizations across the ﬁveboroughs simply aren’t reaching into immigrant communities.
CAPITAL CRUNCH 34
Limited access to capital is one of the key hurdles facingimmigrant entrepreneurs in New York.
SMALL LOANS, BIG DREAMS 37
A handful of microenterprise organizations are helpingimmigrants get access to seed capital and critical adviceon running a business.
CITY LIMITED 41
An examination of what the Bloomberg administration hasand hasn’t done to support immigrant entrepreneurs.
TICKET TIME BOMB 44
Overzealous regulatory enforcement efforts are hurtingimmigrant-run ﬁrms.
LOS ANGELES 48HOUSTON 52BOSTON 55
This report was written by Jonathan Bowles withTara Colton. It was edited by David Jason Fischerand designed by Caroline Jerome, D.C. Joel Kotkin, asenior fellow with the Center for an Urban Future andan Irvine Senior Fellow with the New America Founda-tion, worked as a consultant on the Los Angeles andHouston portions of this project. Additional researchby Mirvlyne Brice, Lindsey Ganson, Jennifer Gootman,Andrew Gounardes, Rachel Greene, Steven Josselson,Tanushri Kumar, Migi Lee and Suman Saran. We alsoacknowledge the helpful support we received fromThomas Tseng, New American Dimensions; AndrewSegal, Boxer Property Management; Isabel Duran, Com-munity Financial Resource Center and many others.This report was made possible by support from TheF. B. Heron Foundation, Garﬁeld Foundation and J.M.Kaplan Fund.General operating support for City Futures has beenprovided by Bernard F. and Alva B. Gimbel Founda-tion, Booth Ferris Foundation, Deutsche Bank, TheF.B. Heron Foundation, The M&T Charitable Founda-tion, The Rockefeller Foundation, Rockefeller Philan-thropy Advisors, The Scherman Foundation, Inc., Ta-conic Foundation and Unitarian Universalist VeatchProgram at Shelter Rock.The Center for an Urban Future is a New York City-based think tank dedicated to independent, fact-based research about critical issues affecting NewYork’s future, including economic development,workforce development, higher education and thearts. For more information or to sign up for ourmonthly e-mail bulletin, visit www.nycfuture.org.The Center for an Urban Future is a project of CityFutures, Inc. City Futures Board of Directors: AndrewReicher (Chair), Russell Dubner, Ken Emerson, MarkWinston Grifﬁth, Marc Jahr, David Lebenstein, GailMellow, Lisette Nieves, Ira Rubenstein, John Siegal,Karen Trella and Peter Williams.Cover photo: Dominick Totino