R.C. Poudel, D.R. Joshi, N.R. Dhakal and A.B. Karki / Our Nature (2009) 7: 151-157153isolates were found to be MRSA. All
spp. were sensitive beVancomycin and Erythromycin and resistantto Cephalexin and Ceftazidime (Table 2).Out of 49 isolates taken for antibioticsusceptibility test, 23 (46.9%) were found tobe MDR isolates. The results are shown inTable 3.
Sewage sludge and biowastes harbor a widerange of pathogenic and indicatororganisms. The composition in pathogensdepends on the type of waste studied. Atotal of 109 bacteria were identified fromsewage sludge, biowaste and bioslurrysamples, which belong to 12 genera. Dudley
(1980); Strauch (1991); Carrington(2001); Lepeuple (2004) and Sahlström
. (2008) have reported similar genera of bacteria from the sewage sludge andbiowaste.A total of 49 environmental isolates of 5genera were taken for antibioticsusceptibility test against differentantibiotics.
and faecalStreptococci are the indicator organisms andthey were frequently isolated even from thedigested residues (bio-slurry). While otherbacteria such as
spp.are pathogenic and most commonlyassociated with humans diseases. Theselection of antibiotics for theirsusceptibility test was dependent upon thetype of antibiotics used for the particulartype of bacteria. The increasing use of antibiotics in humans, animals andagriculture may be the important factor indeveloping the antibiotic resistant bacteria.The antibiotic susceptibility pattern among11
isolates showed that90.91% the isolates were resistant towardsat least one of the antibiotics used and45.46% of the total
isolates were multidrugresistant.
All isolates were sensitive toGentamicin, Amikacin and Ceftazidime andthe higher resistance was seen toAmoxycillin (90.91%). The antibioticresistance patterns obtained by Lin
.(2004) among 113 enteric bacteria isolatedfrom Mhlathuze river showed that 94.7%were resistant to at least one class of antibiotic, 75.2% were multiresistant and allisolates were sensitive to Gentamicin.Similarly, the study conducted by Alhaj
. (2007) found that 61.2% of the totalenvironmental isolates of
were multiresistant. The lower percentage of multidrugresistant
found in present study maybe affected by the location (Pillai
.,1997).Among 12 environmental
isolates, 75% were found to bethe multidrug resistant while 22.22% wereresistant towards more than 3 antibiotics of different class. The higher susceptibility wasobserved to Amikacin and Gentamicinwhich exhibited 91.67% followed byCiprofloxacin (83.34) and Ceftazidime(66.67%) and all isolates were resistanttowards Tetracycline and Cephalexin.Shahid and Malik (2005) reported that 96%of clinical
isolateswas multi drug-resistant and the majority(71.4%) were resistant to 5 or moreantibiotics. The clinical
isolates are more resistant to theantibiotics than environmental isolates(Shahid and Malik, 2005). 40% of theisolates of
spp. were multidrugresistant (MDR), the higher resistance was