Pressure and Fluid Statics
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Pressure, Manometer, and Barometer
We are to discuss the difference between gage pressure and absolute pressure.
pressure relative to the atmospheric pressure
is called the
, and the
pressure relativeto an absolute vacuum
Most pressure gages (like your bicycle tire gage) read relative to atmospheric pressure, and therefore readthe gage pressure.
We are to explain nose bleeding and shortness of breath at high elevation.
Atmospheric air pressure which is the external pressure exerted on the skin decreases with increasingelevation. Therefore,
the pressure is lower at higher elevations. As a result, the difference between the blood pressurein the veins and the air pressure outside increases
This pressure imbalance may cause some thin-walled veins suchas the ones in the nose to burst, causing bleeding
. The shortness of breath is caused by the lower air density at higherelevations, and thus lower amount of oxygen per unit volume.
People who climb high mountains like Mt. Everest suffer other physical problems due to the low pressure.
We are to examine a claim about absolute pressure.
No, the absolute pressure in a liquid of constant density does not double when the depth is doubled
. Itis the
that doubles when the depth is doubled.
This is analogous to temperature scales – when performing analysis using something like the ideal gas law,you
use absolute temperature (K), not relative temperature (
C), or you will run into the same kind of problem.
We are to compare the pressure on the surfaces of a cube.
Since pressure increases with depth,
the pressure on the bottom face of the cube is higher than that onthe top.
The pressure varies linearly along the side faces
. However, if the lengths of the sides of the tiny cube suspendedin water by a string are very small, the magnitudes of the pressures on all sides of the cube are nearly the same.
In the limit of an “infinitesimal cube”, we have a fluid particle, with pressure
defined at a “point”.
We are to define Pascal’s law and give an example.
the pressure applied to a confined fluid increases the pressure throughout bythe same amount
. This is a consequence of the pressure in a fluid remaining constant in the horizontal direction. Anexample of Pascal’s principle is the operation of the hydraulic car jack.
The above discussion applies to fluids at rest (hydrostatics). When fluids are in motion, Pascal’s principledoes not necessarily apply. However, as we shall see in later chapters, the differential equations of incompressible fluidflow contain only pressure
, and thus an increase in pressure
in the whole system
affect fluid motion.