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Fluid Mechanics - Fundamentals and applications by yunus a. cengel and john m. cimbala Chap09

Fluid Mechanics - Fundamentals and applications by yunus a. cengel and john m. cimbala Chap09

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Fluid Mechanics - Fundamentals and applications by yunus a. cengel and john m. cimbala Chap09
Fluid Mechanics - Fundamentals and applications by yunus a. cengel and john m. cimbala Chap09

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Chapter 9
 Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow
9-1
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only toteachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
Solutions Manual forFluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applicationsby Çengel & Cimbala
CHAPTER 9DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS OF FLUID FLOW
PROPRIETARY AND CONFIDENTIAL
This Manual is the proprietary property of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.(“McGraw-Hill”) and protected by copyright and other state and federal laws. Byopening and using this Manual the user agrees to the following restrictions, and if therecipient does not agree to these restrictions, the Manual should be promptly returnedunopened to McGraw-Hill:
This Manual is being provided only to authorizedprofessors and instructors for use in preparing for the classes using the affiliatedtextbook. No other use or distribution of this Manual is permitted. This Manualmay not be sold and may not be distributed to or used by any student or otherthird party. No part of this Manual may be reproduced, displayed or distributedin any form or by any means, electronic or otherwise, without the prior writtenpermission of McGraw-Hill.
 
Chapter 9
 Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow
9-2
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only toteachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
General and Mathematical Problems9-1C
 
Solution
We are to explain the fundamental differences between a flow domain and a control volume.
 Analysis
 
A
 control volume
is used in an integral, control volume solution
. It is a volume over which all mass flowrates, forces, etc. are specified over the entire control surface of the control volume. In a control volume analysis we do notknow or care about details
inside
the control volume. Rather, we solve for gross features of the flow such as net force actingon a body.
A
 flow domain
, on the other hand, is also a volume, but is used in a differential analysis
. Differentialequations of motion are solved everywhere inside the flow domain, and we
are
interested in all the details inside the flowdomain.
 Discussion
Note that we also need to specify what is happening at the boundaries of a flow domain – these are called
boundary conditions
.
9-2C
 
Solution
We are to explain what we mean by coupled differential equations.
 Analysis
A set of coupled differential equations simply means that
the equations are dependent on each other andmust be solved together rather than separately
. For example, the equations of motion for fluid flow involve velocityvariables in both the conservation of mass equation and the momentum equation. To solve for these variables, we mustsolve the coupled set of differential equations together.
 Discussion
In some very simple fluid flow problems, the equations become uncoupled, and are easier to solve.
9-3C
 
Solution
We are to discuss the number of unknowns and the equations needed to solve for those unknowns for athree-dimensional, unsteady, incompressible flow field.
 Analysis
There are
four unknowns
(velocity components
u
,
v
,
w
, and pressure
P
) and thus we need to solve
fourequations
:
 
one from conservation of mass which is a scalar equation
 
three from Newton’s second law which is a vector equation
 Discussion
These equations are also coupled in general.
9-4C
 
Solution
We are to discuss the number of unknowns and the equations needed to solve for those unknowns for athree-dimensional, unsteady, compressible flow field with significant variations in both temperature and density.
 Analysis
There are
six unknowns
(velocity components
u
,
v
,
w
,
 ρ 
,
, and
P
) and thus we need to solve
sixequations
:
 
one from conservation of mass which is a scalar equation
 
three from Newton’s second law which is a vector equation
 
one from the energy equation which is a scalar equation
 
one from an equation of state (e.g. ideal gas law) which is a scalar equation
 Discussion
These equations are also coupled in general.
 
Chapter 9
 Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow
9-3
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only toteachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
9-5C
 
Solution
We are to express the divergence theorem in words.
 Analysis
For vector
G
,
the volume integral of the divergence of 
G
over volume
is equal to the surfaceintegral of the normal component of 
G
taken over the surface
 A
that encloses the volume
.
 Discussion
The divergence theorem is also called
Gauss’s theorem
.
9-6
 
Solution
We are to transform a position from Cartesian to cylindrical coordinates.
 Analysis
We use the coordinate transformations provided in this chapter,
( ) ( )
2222
4 m3 m 5 m
rxy
= + = + =
 (1)and
11o
3 mtantan36.870.6435 radians4 m
 y x
θ 
= = = =
 (2)Coordinate
 z
remains unchanged. Thus,
Position in cylindrical coordinates
:
 
( ) ( )
,,
 xrz
θ 
= =
5 m, 0.6435 radians, -4 m
 (3)
 Discussion
Notice that the units of 
θ 
are radians since angles are dimensionless.
9-7
 
Solution
We are to calculate a truncated Taylor series expansion for a given function and compare our result with theexact value.
 Analysis
The algebra here is simple since
(
e
 x
)/ 
dx
=
e
 x
. The Taylor series expansion is
Taylor series expansion
:
0000
230
11()...232
 xxxx
 fxdxeedxedxedx
+ = + + + +×
 (1)We plug
 x
0
= 0 and
dx
= –0.1 into Eq. 1,
Truncated Taylor series expansion
: 
23
11(0.1)11(0.1)1(0.1)1(0.1)0.9048333...26
 f 
+ × + × × + × × =
 (2)We compare Eq. 2 with the exact value,
 Exact value
:
0.1
(0.1)0.904837418...
 fe
= =
 (3)Comparing Eqs. 2 and 3 we see that
our approximation is good to four or five significant digits
.
 Discussion
The smaller the value of 
dx
, the better the approximation. You can easily convince yourself of this by trying
dx
= 0.01 instead.

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