Figure 6, A Lubricated Compression Specimen Show-ing Lateral Constraining from Friction at the Surface
to measure strain away rom the clamp edges where the pure strainstate is occurring (Figure 5).
Simple Compression Strain State
The compression experiment is also a popular test or elastomers. When testing or analysis, pure states o strain are desired and thisis especially difcult to achieve experimentally in compression.Because there is riction between the test specimen and the instru-ment platens, the specimen is not completely ree to expand laterally during compression. Even very small o riction coefcient levelssuch as 0.1 between the specimen and the platen can cause substan-tial shearing strains that alter the stress response to straining (Figure6). Oten, the maximum shear strain exceeds the maximum com-pression strain! Because the actual riction is not known, the datacannot be corrected.
Equal Biaxial Strain State
For incompressible or nearly incompressible materials, equal biaxialextension o a specimen creates a state o strain equivalent to purecompression. Although the actual experiment is more complexthan the simple compression experiment, a pure state o strain canbe achieved which will result in a more accurate material model.The equal biaxial strain state may be achieved by radial stretching acircular disc. Finite element analysis o the specimen is required todetermine the appropriate geometry o the clamping points (Figure7)
. Once again, a non-contacting strain measuring device must beused such that strain is measured away rom the clamp edges (Figure8).
Volumetric compression is an experiment where the compressibility o the material is examined. In this experiment, a cylindrical speci-men is constrained in a fxture and compressed (Figure 9). Theactual displacement during compression is very small and great caremust be taken to measure only the specimen compliance and notthe stiness o the instrument itsel. The initial slope o the result-ing stress-strain unction is the bulk modulus. This value is typi-cally 2-3 orders o magnitude greater than the shear modulus orelastomers.
Creating a Consistent Data Set
Although the experiments are perormed separately and the strainstates are dierent, data rom all o the individual experiments isused as a set. This means that the specimens used or each o theexperiments must be o the same material. This may seem obvi-
Figure 7, Analysis of a Biaxial SpecimenFigure 8, A Biaxial Extension Experiment using a Laser Extensometer (Out of the Image)
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