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Sociology Info& Culture Notes

Sociology Info& Culture Notes

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Published by: Danish on Jan 27, 2010
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05/03/2013

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Sociology
The word social, is derive from “Latin” word social associate or companion and theGreek word logy mean theory. There are several outers who have giving different type of definition.1.The study of human social behavior, especially the study of the origins,organization, institutions, and development of human society.2.Analysis of a social institution or societal segment as a self-contained entity or inrelation to society as a whole.[French sociologie : socio-, socio- + -logie, study (from Greek -logiā; see -logy).]sociologic
so
'
ci·o·log
'
ic
(-ə-lŏj
'
ĭk ) or so'ci·o·log
'
i·cal (-ĭ-kəl)
adj.
sociologically
so
'
ci·o·log
'
i·cal·ly
 
adv.
sociologist
so
'
ci·ol
'
o·gist
 
n.
 Sociology is the study of the social world around us, the social causes and consequencesof human behavior. Sociologists investigate the structure of groups, organizations, andsocieties, and how people interact within these contexts. Since all human behavior issocial, the subject matter of sociology ranges widely, from the family to the anonymouscrowd, organized crime to organized religion, from inequality along the lines of race,gender and social class to the shared beliefs of a common culture, and from the sociologyof work to the sociology of sports.Sociology offers a unique way of observing and understanding the social world in whichwe dwell. Sociology looks beyond taken-for-granted views of reality to provide deeper,more illuminating and challenging understandings of social life. Through its particular analytical perspective, theoretical approaches, and research methods, sociology expandsour awareness of social relationships, cultures, and institutions that profoundly shape both our lives and human history.Sociology also helps us to understand more clearly the forces shaping the particulars of our own lives. The ability to see and understand this connection between large-scalesocial forces and personal experience, what C. Wright Mills called "the sociologicalimagination," offers invaluable academic preparation for our personal and professionallives in an ever-changing society.Sociology is the study of human societies. It is a social science (with which it isinformally synonymous) that uses various methods of empirical investigation and criticalanalysis to develop and refine a body of knowledge and theory about human socialactivity, often with the goal of applying such knowledge to the pursuit of social welfare.Subject matter ranges from the micro level of agency and interaction to the macro levelof systems and social structures.1
 
Sociology is both topically and methodologically a very broad discipline. Its traditionalfocuses have included social stratification (i.e., class relations), religion, secularization,modernity, culture and deviance, and its approaches have included both qualitative andquantitative research techniques. As much of what humans do fits under the category of social structure and agency, sociology has gradually expanded its focus to further subjects, such as medical, military and penal institutions, the internet, and even the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge. The range of social scientificmethods has also broadly expanded. The linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20thcentury led to increasingly interpretative, hermeneutic, and philosophic approaches to theanalysis of society. Conversely, recent decades have seen the rise of new mathematicallyand computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modeling and socialnetwork analysis.
Why take sociology?
Many of the pleasures and pains you encounter in life result from the fact that you dependupon others for what you want -- parents, friends, employers, musicians, technicians --the list could go on and on. And if you look beyond yourself to the lives of others youcannot help but notice that the same is true for them. At the heart of sociology is the factof human interdependence. Not only what you want and what you get from others, butalso who you are, what you can do, must do, and how much pleasure and pain comesyour way, all depend upon these relationships of interdependence. Taking sociology canhelp you understand the patterns of human interdependence that shape your daily life.Taking sociology classes will also help you gain important skills. You may learn specificmarketable skills, such as how to use statistical software. More generally, you will learnhow to engage in critical analysis, an ability that will serve you well no matter what your future career.
What can I do with Sociology?
People who get a B.A. in sociology are often employed in the helping professions, in business, and in various public welfare positions, especially those dealing with social programs and their implementation. Only those students who graduate from our M.A. program are employed in jobs with the title "sociologist," since that title requires graduatetraining.Career opportunities for students with a degree in sociology include: administration,advertising, banking, counseling (family planning, career, substance abuse, etc.),community planning, health services, journalism, group and recreation work, marketingand market research, sales, teaching, human resources/personnel, social services, andsocial research.A sociology minor aids those going into such varied fields as business, counseling, healthservices, teaching and the social services. People who work in these fields often have tomake decisions based on analysis of social trends and phenomena. The minor gives2
 
 professionals some of the grounding in methodology and technique that they need to dotheir work.Here are some web sites that offer information on jobs and careers for sociology majors:
What is a Theoretical Perspective? 
Perspectives might best be viewed as models.
Each perspective makes assumptions about society.
Each one attempts to integrate various kinds of information about society.
Models give meaning to what we see and experience.
Each perspective focuses on different aspects of society .
Certain consequences result from using a particular model.No one perspective is best in all circumstances. The perspective one uses maydepend upon the question being asked. If one is exploring bureaucraticorganization, then one might like to use a perspective that is concerned withsocial order. On the other hand, if one is concerned with social inequality, thenperhaps the conflict perspective is more useful.Perhaps the best perspective is one which combines many perspectives.
II. The Functionalist Perspective
The origins of the functionalist perspective can be traced to the work of Herbert Spencer and Emile Durkheim.
The problem of maintaining social order is a central problem for understanding society.
Understanding society from a functionalist perspective is to visualizesociety as a system of interrelated parts.All the parts act together eventhough each part may be doing different things.
Institutions, such as family, education, and religion are the parts of thesocial system and they act to bring about order in society.
Integration of the various parts is important. When all the "parts" of thesystem work together, balance is maintained and the over all order of thesystem is achieved.
Social structures in society promote integration, stability, consensus, andbalance.
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