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Physics - Summaries - Current Electricity

Physics - Summaries - Current Electricity

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Published by newtonian_physics
Physics - Summaries - Current Electricity
Physics - Summaries - Current Electricity

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Published by: newtonian_physics on Jan 27, 2010
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10/08/2013

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Topic
8:
Current
of
Electricity
There ore
o
number
oJ
definitions
to
recallfor
this
chapter.
Checkthot
youknow
the
Jollowjng.
Electric
Current
Electric
current
is
the
rate
offlow
of electric
charges.
where
Q
=
total
charge,
In
terms of units:
n
=
numberof
charge
carriers,
q
=
charge
oneach charge
carrier
1A=1Cs1
For
an
electron,the
elementary
charge
is
e
=1.6
x
lole
C.
Charge
carriers
can
be:
(a)
Free
electrons
(in
conductors
and
semiconductors)
(b)
lons
(in
fluids)
(c)
Holes(in
semiconductors)
Direction
of convention
current:
.
opposite
to the direction
of the
electron/negative
ion
flow;
.
in
the
same
direction
as
the
flowof
positive
ions_
an
electricalproperty
oI
particles,
such as
electrons
and
protons,whichthemto attract or
repel
each
other
the
quantity
of
electric
charge
that
passes
through
a
given
section
when
a
steady
current
of
one
ampere
flows for
onesecond
Potentialdifferencepotentialdifferencebetween
two
points
ina
circuit
is
the
amount
of
electricalenergy
converted
to
other forms
of
energy
when
unit
chargepasies
from
one
point
tothe
otherthe
potentialdifference
between
two
pointsin
a
circuit if
one
jouleofelectricalenergy
isconverted
to
other
forms
of
energy
whenone
coulomb
of
charge
from
onepoint
to
the
other
Resistance
the ratio
of
the
potential
difference
across
the
conductor
to
the
current flow
throush
it
the
resjstance
ol
aconductor
if
acurrent
of
one
ampere
flows
in
it
when
a
potential
differenceof
one
volt
is
applied
across
itthe
energy
converted
into
electrical
energy
when
a
unit
charge
jsdelivered
by
an
e.m,f source
tt
llPase
 
a
Related
formulae
where
W
=
work
done
in
drivingthe
charge between
the
2
points
Ohm's
Lawln
termsof units:
1V=1lC-l
V=lR
where
P
=
power
used
to
drive
the current
between
the
2
points
E
:
12
RtNote
1:
When
calculating
power
or
energy
lq$
through
joule
heating(heating
of
circuit
components
whencurrent
flows
through.This
is
due
to
non-zeroreslstance
in them),
we
usually
use
P
=
I2
R
and
E
:
12
Rt,
where1is
thecurrent flowing
in
thecomponent
and
R
is
the
resistance
of
the component.
Note
2:
At timesyouare required
to
comparebrightnessof
bulbs
when
switches
are
togg,ed
on
and
off.
Remember
that
brightness
of
a
bulb
o<
power
delivered
to
it
(souse
the
equations
involving
P
to
Iind lhe
answer).
Example:
Three
identicallight
bulbs
are
connected
as
shown
in
the circuitbelow,
Readings
on...
@@
@
(A)
lf
bulb
A
blows,
24r)
o
0
(B)
lf
bulb
B
blows,
120720720
(C)
lf
bulb
C
blows,a20
t20
120
(D)
lf
wire
X
breaks,
o
0o
2lPage
 
n=4
Resistance
and Resistiviw
For
example,Whenconnectedthis
waywhereP
=
resistivity'
/
=
length(distance
that
currentflows
across);
I
=
cross-sectional
area
{note:
this
must
be
the
area
throughwhich currentflows)
Whenconnected
thisway
A:xxy
I=z
3lPaee

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