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Physics - Summaries - Kinematics

Physics - Summaries - Kinematics

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Published by newtonian_physics
Physics - Summaries - Kinematics
Physics - Summaries - Kinematics

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Published by: newtonian_physics on Jan 27, 2010
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12/30/2012

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Topic
2:
Kinematics
Graphical Analvsis
of
motion
Gradientof
displacement-time
graphDisplacementArea
under
eraph
of
velocity
-time
graphAcceleration
Equations
of uniformlv
accelerated
motion
The
4 kinematicsequations
can
only
beused
when the accelerationof
the
motion
is
constant.
ln
I9Stj!9!L!1qI]S!
(straightline motion),
the
4
kinematicsequations
can be
applied
directly.
o{
acceleration
timegrdph
r=1(,,+,,tt
tt':tt2-2as
positive
direction.
a
negative
sign.
))
Note:
Usually,
the
direction
of
the
initial
velocity
is taken
as
the
Vector
(v,
s
or
a)
which
has
an
opposite
direction
is
givenDisplacement
is
always measured
from
its
initialpositionProiectile
Motion
ln
non-linear
motion
(2Dprojectilemotion),
we
have
to
consider
the
r
lhoizontall
and
J
(rerlical)
components
of
u, v,
s
and
a
separately. Time
t
is
a
scalar
-
it
is
the
gdllqla4ilflllq!
links
the
)r
motion to the
y
motion.
ofvelocity-time
graph
((
llPage
 
Tvpical
approach
to
solvine
such
questions
Step
1:
Sketch
the
tra,ectory
includinglabeling
all
thequantities
{very
important!)
Step
2:
Resolve
the initial
velocity,
ll
(if
necessary)Step
3:
List
down
the
quantitiesgiven
by
the
question:
Step
4:
Apply
the
kinematics
equations-
Remember
thattime
links
the
horizontalmotionto
-
the
vertical motion
Ail
resistance
Air
resis6nce
is
a
resistive
force
that
opposes
the
motion
of
an
object
as
it
tries
to
pushair
(fluid)
particles
out
ofthe
way.
lt
depends
on
the
shape
and
speed
ofthe
object.
Directionof air resistance: opposite
to thedirectionof
motion
Magnitudeof air resistance:
increases
with
speed
ofthe
object
Consider an
obiect
beingproiected
verticallv
u'pwards:
While
it
is
movingupwards,
air
resistance
acts in
the
same
direction
as
its
weight.
weight
-
The
object
will
decelerate
at a
higher rate
than
g.
As
the
object
travelshigher,
its
speed
will
decrease.
The
air
resistance
will
alsodecrease
until
zero,
-
Maximum height
reached
by
the
obiect
wall
be
lowerthan
that
without
alr
resistance.
At
thispoint,
air
aesistance
is
zero.Considering
horizontal
motion
I
Considerins
verttcal
motion(takenote
of
sign
rrr
=
,r
(th
is
is
true for free-falling
obj
ect)
I
conventions
I
|
/,
=?
{rhis
is
zero
if
initiatmotionof object
is
r,I
horizontdl)
a,:
0
(this
is
zero for
free-falling
object)
|.t,
=
?
{this
is
zero
if object
returns
to
original
I
position
/
same
level
as
originalposition)
I
r,y
-
?
(this
is
zero
atthe
max
height ofthetraiectory)
dr,
:
g
{thisis
gravitationalaccelerationfor
free-fallingobiect)
2lPage
 
Consider
an
obiect
movi
rachutistl:
Jair".tion
ot
rotion
time
path
without
air
resistance
rds
{this
is
likethe tvDical
moti
n
of
a
falli
lnitially
speedof
object
is
zero
andacceleration
is
g.
As
the
object
gainsspeed.
air
resistance
is
no
longer
zero.
lt
acts
in
the
direction
opposite
to
its
weight-
resista
t
I
weight
lhe
oble(
t will
a(
celerdte
slowerthdn
g.
As
the
object falls
further,
its speed
will
increase-
The
air
resistance
will
also increase
until
its magnitudeequals itsweight.
The
resultant
force
on the
object
is
now
zero.The
speed
of the
object
remainsconstant
thereafter
-the
terminal velocitv
(Vr).velocityFor2D
projectilemotion
under
ot
resistohce.the
projeciion
will:
(d)
rcoch
lowetthdn
its
maximum
possibte
height;
(b)
redch
thortet
thon
its
maximum
possible
range;
H
take
shortertime
to reoch
its
topthon
its
woy
down;
(d)
hdve
on
dsymmetficdl
path.
3lPase
path
with
air
resistance
'..

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