2000Agenda for the Next Millennium
Geographically speaking, the Third World mainly consists of theAfrican, Asian, and Latin American states. These countries belong to the
They are so described because they have been through manydisturbances.
They have, for example, fought many battles for theirnational liberation and economic independence. The
is thusa geopolitical concept, based on inclusion in a geographical area
at the historical period of colonization. It is alsobased on the economic situation of underdevelopment.Some writers have made a further classi
They classify develop-ing Third World countries into two groups. The
rst group consists of thelow-income developing countries. These are largely made up of Africancountries, especially sub-Saharan African states; South Africa is excluded.The
rst group also includes Latin American states. The second groupconsists of the middle-to-high-income Third World countries. This consistsof the high performing Asian economies led by Japan. It includes the so-called
Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, andTaiwan. It also includes the newly industrializing economies of Indonesia,Malaysia, and Thailand.
B.Development v. Underdevelopment
Some countries are classi
ed as developed, others as developing. Still, someare classi
ed as underdeveloped. This raises a question. What is develop-ment? The answer is not that simple. Development is a many-sided process.At the level of the individual, it implies increased skill and capacity. Itimplies greater freedom, creativity, self-discipline, responsibility, and mate-rial well-being. The achievement of these aspects of personal developmentis very much tied to the state of the society as a whole.
At the level of the social groups, development implies an increasingcapacity to regulate both internal and external relations. More often thannot, development is used in a purely economic sense. In this sense, it is
seen as simultaneously the vision of a better life, a life materially richer,institutionally more modern and technologically more ef
cient and an arrayof means to achieve that vision.
Yemi Osinbajo & Olukonyinsola Ajayi,
Human Rights and Economic Development in Developing Countries,
727, 730 (1994).7
Development: Creator and Destroyer of Values in
: A G
90 (K.E. Mahoney & Paul Mahoney eds.,1993).