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Introduction to HTML - HTML Tutorials in Web Page Design by J. Gilson

Introduction to HTML - HTML Tutorials in Web Page Design by J. Gilson

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INTRODUCTION TO HTML - html tutorials in web page design by J. Gilson
LESSON ONE - INTRODUCING HTML
You may read the following sections in their entiretyor use these choices to go directly to a section.|Understanding HTML| |Different Versions of HTML| |The Netscape Problem| |HTML software to assist in web page design|
UNDERSTANDING HTML
HTML
stands for
H
yper
T
ext
M
arkup
L
anguage.
H
yper 
T
ext 
M
arkup 
L
anguage
LET'S BREAK THIS DOWN A LITTLE FURTHER
 
HYPER
You may have heard the expression "hyper" in describing someone. In simplest terms, it means active,kind of "all over the place". The word "Hyper" as part of HTML is similar in context. It simply meansthat when you are on the internet using a browser such as Netscape Navigator or Internet Explorer, youcan in fact, go "all over the place". In browsing through the World Wide Web (WWW), if you seesomething you like, you can go immediately to it. There is no set order to do things in. Hyper is theopposite of "linear". Linear means that there is a certain order you must follow such as "you must do thisbefore you can do that". Programming languages such as BASIC and FORTRAN are linear. HTML doesnot hold to that and allows you to jump to any page on the WWW and at any time. Thus the wordHYPER refers to the idea that the text in HTML is not linear.
TEXT
We are working with text only files. More on that in Lesson Two.
http://www.htmltutorials.ca/lesson1.htm? (1 of 7)06/03/2004 09:03:09
 
INTRODUCTION TO HTML - html tutorials in web page design by J. Gilson
MARKUP
"Markup" comes from the fact that in order to create web pages, we will be typing in the text and then"marking up" the text. If you are familiar with WordPerfect, consider this example. Suppose you justtyped a document in WordPerfect. If you choose REVEAL CODES from the VIEW menu, the monitorscreen or Window splits into two parts. The top half of the screen shows the text you typed in and thebottom half shows the same text but with the words marked up with "codes" or "tags". For example,suppose you typed the following three lines in WordPerfect:
Hi, this is bold
 
This is italics
 These words are centeredIf you choose REVEAL CODES, you would see the following on the bottom half of your screen in oneversion of WordPerfect:
[Bold On]Hi, this is bold[Bold off][HRt][HRt][Italic On]This is italics[Italic Off][HRt][HRt][Just:Center]These words are centered[HRt]
 In other words, the text has been marked up with codes or tags as indicated between the [ ] symbols.Each [HRt] indicates that the ENTER key was pressed. [Bold On] means that everything after this tag isbolded. The [Bold Off] tag simply says that bolding is to end here. Unless you choose REVEALCODES, you won't see these tags. All word processors have codes that tell the computer how to displaythe document, how to print it out, etc.In HTML, WordPerfect tags or the tags from any other word processor won't work. HTML has itsown set of tags to mark up text. If you want something bolded or centered, you have to indicate so withHTML tags. WordPerfect automatically puts the tags in for you. In HTML, you must put in the tagsyourself. If you want to see the tags for this page, just choose
VIEW
from the menu bar of your browserand then choose
SOURCE
or
DOCUMENT SOURCE
.
LANGUAGE
"Language" means that we are using a language with all its syntax. Note that HTML is not aprogramming language such as BASIC or FORTRAN. These are linear programming languages and arebased on a whole different set of rules and are far more complicated to learn. The HTML language is
http://www.htmltutorials.ca/lesson1.htm? (2 of 7)06/03/2004 09:03:09
 
INTRODUCTION TO HTML - html tutorials in web page design by J. Gilson
easy to learn (trust me).|top| |bottom|
DIFFERENT VERSIONS OF HTMLHTML 1.0
The original version of HTML was HTML 1.0. It had very limited features which greatly limited whatyou could do in designing your web pages.
HTML 2.0
HTML 2.0 then arrived and included all the features of HTML 1.0 plus several new features for webpage design. Until January, 1997, HTML 2.0 was the standard in web page design.
HTML 3.0
HTML 2.0 served its purpose very well, but many people designing web pages (called HTML authors orwebmasters) wanted more control over their web pages and more ways to mark up their text andenhance the appearance of their websites. Netscape, the leading browser at that time, introduced newtags and attributes called the
Netscape Extension Tags
. Other browsers tried to duplicate them butNetscape did not fully specify their new tags and so these extension tags did not work in most otherbrowsers. It led to considerable confusion and problems when HTML authors used these tags andattributes and then saw that they didn't work as expected in other browsers.At about that time, an HTML working group, led by Dave Raggett, introduced the HTML 3.0 draftwhich included many new and useful enhancements to HTML. However, most browsers onlyimplemented a few elements from this draft. The phrase "HTML 3.0 enhanced" quickly became popularon the web but it more often than not referred to documents containing browser specific tags (discussedbelow in "The Netscape Problem" section), instead of referring to documents adhering to the HTML 3.0draft. This was one of the reasons why the draft was abandoned.
 HTML 3.0 is now an expired draft 
.Another reason why HTML 3.0 did not make it was because it was so "big". Future versions were nowto be introduced in a more "modular" way so that browsers can implement them modular by modular orbit by bit.
HTML 3.2 (WILBUR)
As more browser-specific tags were introduced, it became obvious that a new standard was needed. Forthis reason, the Word Wide Web Consortium (W3C), founded in 1994 to develop common standards for
http://www.htmltutorials.ca/lesson1.htm? (3 of 7)06/03/2004 09:03:09

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