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Coffee Production

Coffee Production

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Published by: dhenz006 on Jan 28, 2010
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Coffee Production
Arsenio D. RamosDept. of Horticulture, VSUVisca, Baybay, LeyteI.
Historical Background
1740 - coffee
(Coffea arabica
) was introduced by the Spaniards and wasfirst planted in Lipa, Batangas.
1880 – production peak; Philippines became the 4
largest coffee exporter in the world.
1894- coffee leaf rust caused by a fungus (Hemeleia vsatatrix) wiped outmany coffee plantations; Philippines became a coffee importer.
1960- coffee development program was launched by the government theaim is to improve quality and volume of harvest. Plantations wereestablished not only in Luzon (Cavite and Batangas area) but inMindanao. Philippines again became a coffee exporter when a devastatingfrost destroyed coffee plantations in Brazil and Angola.
1980- new high yielding Robusta was introduced in the Philippines by Nestle’ which further improved volume of production. Philippines became an official member of International Coffee Organization (ICO).
1989- International Coffee Agreement collapsed resulting to the lifting of quotas, over supply and low price in the world market; coffee export of the country became unproductive.
1995- government was alarmed of the continuous reduction of the volumeof coffee produced in the country; government initiated programs to slowdown the rate of decline of the industry like signing of Proclamation #876 declaring the period from October 12-19 as the Philippine CoffeeWeek and authorizing the holdings of annual search for excellence incoffee.
2002- National Task Force on Coffee Rehabilitation was created with 138M peso budget.
2003 – 22,000 hectares of land planted to coffee in 22 provinces.
II.Status of the Philippine Coffee Industry
Based from the 22 years production data (1976-1989) coffee production inthe country increased during the last 10 years with the biggest volumerecorded in 1989. From 1989 until early part of 1996, productiondecreased. A slight increase in volume of production was recordedstarting 1998 but beyond 1998, production continued to decrease.
2002- production was 35,000 MT or 583,000 60 kilograms bag. This isonly equivalent to 0.012% of the total world coffee production.Major Producing Regions in the Country:1.Southern Mindanao (38%)2.Southern Tagalog (16%)3.Northern Mindanao (15%)4.ARRM (11%)5.Western VisayasDomestic Consumption
Domestic consumption increased from 369,000 60 kg bag in 1977 to853,000 60 kg bags in 1998.
Domestic consumption increased by 2.25% per year.
Domestic consumption in 2002 was 55,000 MT or 916,000 60 kg bags.
By 2005 domestic consumption was estimated to about 60,000 MTExport
From 1977 up to 1989, export volume increased from 204,000 60 kg bagsto 482,000 60 kg bags in 1989.
From 1989 until at present export volume was drastically reduced from482, 000 bags in 1989 to only 45, 000 bags in 1998.Price
Farm gate price of coffee beans was relatively higher and stable in thelater part of 70’s and early 80’s averaging 60 to 80 pesos/kilo og green beans.
In the 90’s , price of coffee was fluctuating and unpredictable.
Average farm gate price was 64 pesos/kilo in 1998 and only 50 pesos in1999.
Current price is between 45-60 pesos/kilo
Foreign Exchange Earnings
From 1980 until 1997, Foreign Exchange Earnings (FEE) generated fromcoffee exports amounted to 642,192,126.0 M dollars or an average of 66,471,569.66 M dollars/year.
From 1980-89, average FEE was only 58 M dollars but from 1990 to 1997it decreased to an average of only 6 M dollars.Problems1.Low production – national average yield is only 450 kg green beans/ha/year.2.Presence of too many marketing intermediates.3.Unpredictable price.Prospects1.New production and post-production technologies are available2.Government and private sector’s support.3.Increasing domestic consumption.4.Philippine Robusta is now highly accepted in the world market.5.Large areas suited to coffee production are available.
III. Botany of Coffee Plant
Family : RubiaceaeGenus: Coffea sp.- there are four commercial species (Arabica, Canephora or Robusta,Excelsa and Liberica)The Tree (General description)Some are bushes or trailing plants but most of them may be classified as trees.They are perennial , woody and with a resistant stem or trunk covered with bark. Insome, the roots are characteristically rather superficial and in other, they are habituallydeep in their penetration into the soil.The Leaves
All have opposite leaves and opposite branches.
Elliptical with sharply acuminate tips (Arabica and Robusta) or roundedwith blunt end (Excelsa and Liberica).
May have wavy (Robusta) or plain (Arabica, Excelsa and Liberica) leaf margin.
Color of young shoots is bronze in Excelsa.

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