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Scientific Formula

Scientific Formula

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Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 1 of 22
MODERN PHYSICS FOR ENGINEERS PHY355
INDEX
3D infinite potential box.13allowed transitions1-electron atoms..........16many-electron atoms...17Angstrom........................21angular frequency............10appendix.........................21atomic mass.....................2average momentum.........11Avogadro's number....18, 21binding energy.................5binomial expansion.........21blackbody.........................6Bohr magneton................21Bohr model......................8Bohr radius......................7Boltzmann constant.........21Bose-Einstein distribution19boson..............................19Bragg's law......................9bremsstrahlung.................6classical physics...............1classical wave equation...10Compton effect.................7conservation laws.............1constants.........................21coordinate systems..........22coordinate transformations22de Broglie wavelength.....10degenerate energy levels..13density of energy states...19density of occupied states20doppler effect...................5Duane-Hunt rule..............6electronacceleration..................8angular momentum......7filling..........................16orbit radius..................8scattering.....................9velocity........................8energybinding........................5density of states..........19Fermi..........................19kinetic.........................5relation to momentum..5relativistic kinetic........5rest..............................5splitting..........16, 17, 18states..........................19total.............................5zero-point...................12energy distribution..........18expectation value............11radial..........................15Fermi energy...................19Fermi speed....................19Fermi temperature...........19Fermi-Dirac distribution..19fermion...........................19frequencyangular.......................10fundamental forces...........2geometry.........................22Greek alphabet................21group velocity.................10harmonic motion.............12Heisenberg limit.............12Heisenberg uncertaintyprinciple.....................12Hermite functions............12impact parameter.............7infinite square well.........12intensity of light...............6inverse photoelectric effect6kinetic energy2, 5, 9, 12, 13Landé factor....................17lattice planes....................9laws of thermodynamics...2length contraction.............3light wavefront.................3lightlike...........................4line spectra......................5Lorentz force law.............2Lorentz transformation.....3magnetic moment............16Maxwell speed distribution...................................18Maxwell’s equations........2Maxwell-Boltzmann factor18mean speed.....................18Michelson-Morleyexperiment...................3minimum angle...............17molecular speeds.............18momentum.......................4relativistic....................4momentum operator........11momentum-energy relation5momentum-temperaturerelation........................9Moseley's equation...........9most probable speed........18Newton’s laws.................2normalization..................11normalization constant....14normalizing functions......14orbital angular momentum15order of electron filling....16particle in a box........12, 13phase constant.................10phase space.................2, 19phase velocity.................10photoelectric effect...........6photon..............................6momentum...................4Planck's constant.............21Planck's radiation law.......6positron............................6potential barrier..............13probability......................11radial..........................15probability densityradial..........................15probability of location.....11proper length....................3proper time......................3quantum numbers............15radial acceleration............8radial probability.............15radial probability density.15radial wave functions......14radiation power................6relativity..........................3rest energy.......................5root mean square speed...18Rutherform scattering.......8Rydberg constant.........9, 21scattering......................7, 8electron........................9head-on........................7x-ray............................9Schrödinger wave equation.............................11, 123D rectangular coord...133D spherical coord......14simple harmonic motion..12spacelike..........................4spacetime diagram...........4spacetime distance...........3spacetime interval............4spectral lines....................9spectroscopic symbols.....16speed of light...................3spherical coordinates.......22spin angular momentum..16spin-orbit splitting...........17splitting due to spin.........17spring harmonics.............12statistical physics............18Stefan-Boltzman law........6temperatureFermi..........................19temperature and momentum9thermodynamics...............2time dilation.....................3timelike...........................4total angular momentum..16total energy......................5trig identities...................22tunneling.........................13uncertainty of waves........10uncertainty principle.......12units................................21velocity addition...............3wave functions................10wave number.............10, 11wave uncertainties...........10wavelength..................3, 10spectrum.....................21wavesenvelope.....................10sum.............................10Wien's constant................6work function...................6x-rayL-alpha waves..............9scattering.....................9Young's double slitexperiment...................5Zeeman splitting.......16, 18zero-point energy.............12
CLASSICAL PHYSICS
CLASSICAL CONSERVATION LAWS
Conservation of Energy:
The total sum of energy (inall its forms) is conserved in all interactions.
Conservation of Linear Momentum:
In the absenceof external force, linear momentum is conserved inall interactions (vector relation). naustalgic
Conservation of Angular Momentum:
In the absenceof external torque, angular momentum is conservedin all interactions (vector relation).
Conservation of Charge:
Electric charge is conservedin all interactions.
Conservation of Mass:
(not valid)
 
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 2 of 22
MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS
Gauss’s law for electricity
0
q
=ε
∫ 
EA
g
Ñ
 Gauss’s law formagnetism
0
=
∫ 
BA
g
Ñ
 Faraday’s law
 B
dt 
Φ= −
∫ 
Es
g
Ñ
 Generalized Ampere’s law
000
 E 
d dt 
Φ=µ ε +µ
∫ 
Bs
g
Ñ
 
LORENTZ FORCE LAW
Lorentz force law:
q q
= + ×
FEvB
 
NEWTON’S LAWS
Newton’s first law:
Law of Inertia 
 
An object in motionwith a constant velocity will continue in motion unlessacted upon by some net external force.
Newton’s second law:
The acceleration
a
of a body isproportional to the net external force
F
and inverselyproportional to the mass
m
of the body.
F
=
m
a
Newton’s third law:
law of action and reaction 
 
Theforce exerted by body 1 on body 2 is equal andopposite to the force that body 2 exerts on body 1.
LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
First law of thermodynamics:
The change in theinternal energy
of a system is equal to the heat
Q
 added to the system minus the work
done by thesystem.
Second law of thermodynamics:
It is not possible toconvert heat completely into work without some otherchange taking place.
Third law of thermodynamics:
It is not possible toachieve an absolute zero temperature.
Zeroth law of thermodynamics:
If two thermalsystems are in thermodynamic equilibrium with athird system, they are in equilibrium with each other.
FUNDAMENTAL FORCES
FORCERELATIVESTRENGTHRANGE
Strong 1Short, ~
10
-15
m
 ElectroweakElectromagnetic 10
-2
Long,
1/ 
2
 
Weak 10
-9
Short, ~
10
-15
m
 Gravitational 10
-39
Long,
1/ 
2
 
ATOMIC MASS
 
The mass of an atom
is it'satomic number divided by theproduct of 1000 timesAvogadro's number.
 
atomic number1000
a
 N 
×
 
KINETIC ENERGY
 
The kinetic energy of a particle
(idealgas) in equilibrium with itssurroundings is:
 
32
kT 
=
 
PHASE SPACE
A six-dimensional pseudospace
populated byparticles described by six position and velocityparameters:
position:
(
 x
,
 y
,
 z
)
velocity:
(
v
 x
,
v
 y
,
v
 z
)
 
 
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 3 of 22
RELATIVITYWAVELENGTH
λλ
 
00
1
c
= =λνµ ε
 
1Å = 10
-10
m
 
c
 
= speed of light
2.998 × 10
8
 
m/s
 
λ
 
= wavelength
[
m
]
 ν
 
= (nu) radiation frequency
[
Hz
]
Å
 
= (angstrom) unit of wavelengthequal to 10
-10
 
m
 
m
 
= (meters)
 
Michelson-Morley Experiment
indicated that light wasnot influenced by the “flow of ether”.
LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION
Compares position and time in two coordinatesystems moving with respect to each other along axisx.
22
1
 x v xv c
=
 
222
 / 1
t vx cv c
=
 
v
=
velocity of (x’,y’,z’) system along the x-axis. [
m/s
]
 
 
= time
[
s
]
c
 
= speed of light
2.998 × 10
8
 
m/s
 or with
vc
β=
and
22
11
v c
γ =
 so that
( )
 x x v
= γ
and
( )
 / 
t t x c
= γ −β
 
LIGHT WAVEFRONT
Position of the wavefront of a light source located atthe origin, also called the
spacetime distance
.
22222
 x y z c
+ + =
 
Proper time
T
0
The elapsed time between two eventsoccurring at the same position in a system asrecorded by a stationary clock in the system (shorterduration than other times). Objects moving at highspeed age less.
Proper length
L
0
a length that is not moving withrespect to the observer. The proper length is longerthan the length as observed outside the system.Objects moving at high speed become longer in thedirection of motion.
TIME DILATION
Given two systems moving at great speed relative toeach other; the time interval between two eventsoccurring at the same location as measured within thesame system is the
proper time
and is shorter thanthe time interval as measured outside the system.
022
1
v c
=
or
022
1
v c
=
where:
T’
0
,
 
0
=
the proper time (shorter). [
s
]
 
T, T’
 
= time measured in the other system
[
m
]
v
=
velocity of (x’,y’,z’) system along the x-axis. [
m/s
]
 
c
 
= speed of light
2.998 × 10
8
 
m/s
 
LENGTH CONTRACTION
Given an object moving with great speed, thedistance traveled as seen by a stationary observer is
 L
0
and the distance seen by the object is
 L' 
, which iscontracted.
022
1
 L Lv c
=
where:
 L
0
=
the
proper length
(longer). [
m
]
 
 L' 
 
= contracted length
[
m
]
v
=
velocity of (x’,y’,z’) system along the x-axis. [
m/s
]
 
c
 
= speed of light
2.998 × 10
8
 
m/s
 
RELATIVISTIC VELOCITY ADDITION
Where frame
K' 
 
moves along the
 x
-axis of
withvelocity
v
, and an object moves along the
 x
-axis withvelocity
u
 x
with respect of
K' 
, the velocity of theobject with respect to
is
u
 x
.
 
K' vu' 
 
( )
2
1
 x x x
u vuv c u
+=+
 
If there is
u
 y
or
u
 z
within the
K' 
frame then
( )
2
1
 y y x
uuv c u
=γ
and
( )
2
1
 z z x
uuv c u
=γ
 
u
 x
=
velocity of an object in the
 x
direction [
m/s
]
 
v
=
velocity of (x’,y’,z’) system along the x-axis. [
m/s
]
 
c
 
= speed of light
2.998 × 10
8
 
m/s
γ 
=
22
1/1
v c
 For the situation where the velocity
u
with respect to the
 frame is known, the relation may be rewritten exchangingthe primes and changing the sign of
v
.
 

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