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Behavior Change Theories and Models

Behavior Change Theories and Models

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Behavior Change Theories and Models
Because theories and models of human behavior can guide the development andrefinement of health promotion and education efforts, this page reviews elements of behavioral and social science theories and models.
Learning Theories
Learning theories emphasize that learning a new, complex pattern of behavior, likechanging from a sedentary (sēdošs) to an active lifestyle, normally requires modifyingmany of the small behaviors that compose an overall complex behavior. Principles of behavior modification suggest that a complex-pattern behavior, such as walkingcontinuously for 30 minutes daily, can be learned by first breaking it (down into smaller segments (e.g., walking for 10) minutes daily). Behaviors that are steps toward a finalgoal need to be reinforced and established first, with rewards given for partialaccomplishment if necessary. Incremental increases, such as adding 5 minutes to thedaily walking each week, are then made as the complex pattern of behavior is "shaped"toward the targeted goal. A further complication to the change process is that newpatterns of physical activity behavior must replace or compete with former patterns of inactive behaviors that are often satisfying (e.g., watching television), habitual behaviorse.g., parking close to the door),or behaviors cued (diktēts) by the environment (e.g., thepresence of an elevator).Reinforcement (pastiprināšana) describes the consequences (sekas) that motivatesindividuals either to continue or discontinue behavior. Most behaviors, including physicalactivity, are learned and maintained under fairly complex schedules of reinforcementand anticipated future rewards. Future rewards (apvalvojums, albums) or incentives(darba samaksas premiālā sistēma) may include physical consequences (e.g., lookingbetter), extrinsic (neraksturīgs, nebūtisks) rewards (e.g., receiving praise andencouragement from others, receiving a T-shirt), and intrinsic (būtisks, pasiess,raksturīgs) rewards (e.g., experiencing a feeling of accomplishment (izpildījums,veikums) or gratification (gandarījums) from attaining a personal mile stone).It isimportant to note that although providing
 praise(uzslava), encouragement, and other extrinsic (neraksturīgs) rewards
may help people adopt positive lifestyle behaviors,such
external reinforcement (pastiprināšana) may not be reliable
for sustained (ilgstošs)long-term change.
Health Belief Model
The health belief model stipulates (izvirzīt noteikumu) that a person's health-relatedbehavior depends on the person's perception of four critical areas: the severity(stingrība) of a potential illness, the person's susceptibility (jūtīgums) to that illness, thebenefits of taking a preventive action, and the barriers to taking that action. The modelalso incorporates cues (diktēts) to action (e.g., leaving a written reminder to oneself towalk) as important elements in eliciting (izdibināt) or maintaining patterns of behavior.The construct of self-efficacy (iedarbība, spēks) , or a person's confidence in his or her 
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ability to successfully perform an action (discussed in more detail later in this chapter),has been added to the model, perhaps allowing it to better account for habitualbehaviors, such as a physically active lifestyle.
Transtheoretical Model
In this model, behavior change has been conceptualized as a five-stage process or continuum related to a person's readiness to change:precontemplation, (iepriekšējas pārdomas)contemplation, (pārdomas)preparation, (sagatavošanās)action, (darbība)and maintenance. (saglabāšana)People are thought to progress through these stages at varying rates, often movingback and forth along the continuum a number of times before attaining the goal of maintenance.Therefore, the stages of change are better described as spiraling or cyclical rather thanlinear.In this model, people use different processes of change as they move from one stage of change to another. Efficient (iedarbīgs) self-change thus depends on doing the rightthing (processes) at the right time (stages). According to this theory, tailoring(piemērotas) interventions to match a person's readiness or stage of change isessential (būtība) .For example, for people who are not yet contemplating (iecerējuši) becoming moreactive, encouraging a step-by-step movement along the continuum of change may bemore effective than encouraging them to move directly into action.
Relapse (atkārtošanās, recedīvs) Prevention Model
Some researchers have used concepts of relapse prevention to help new exercisersanticipate (nojaust, paredzēt) problems with adherence (stingra ievērošana, uzticība)Factors that contribute (sekmēt) to relapse include negative emotional or physiologicstates, limited coping (pamat) skills, social pressure, interpersonal conflict, limited socialsupport, low motivation, high-risk situations, and stress. Principles of relapse preventioninclude identifying high-risk situations for relapse (e.g., change in season) anddeveloping appropriate solutions (e.g., finding a place to walk inside during the winter).Helping people distinguish (atšķirt) between a lapse (misēklis) (e.g., a few days of notparticipating in their planned activity) and a relapse (e.g., an extended period of notparticipating) is thought to improve adherence.(
 
stingra ievērošana principu)
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Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior 
The theory of reasoned action states that individual performance of a given behavior isprimarily determined by a person's intention( intensitāte) to perform that behavior. Thisintention is determined by two major factors:the person's attitude toward the behavior (i.e., beliefs about the outcomes of thebehavior and the value of these outcomes)and the influence of the person's social environment or subjective norm (i.e., beliefsabout what other people think the person should do, as well as the person's motivationto comply with the opinions of others).The theory of planned behavior adds to the theory of reasoned action the concept of perceived (uztvert, saprast) control over the opportunities, resources, and skillsnecessary to perform a behavior. The concept of perceived behavioral control is similar to the concept of self-efficacy -- person's perception of his or her ability to perform thebehavior. Perceived behavioral control over opportunities, resources, and skillsnecessary to perform a behavior is believed to be a critical aspect of behavior changeprocesses.
Social Learning/Social Cognitive Theory
Social learning theory, later renamed social cognitive theory, proposes that behavior change is affected by environmental influences, personal factors, and attributes of thebehavior itself. Each may affect or be affected by either of the other two. A central tenet(princips, doktrīna) of social cognitive theory is the concept of self-efficacy. A personmust believe in his or her capability (spēja) to perform the behavior (i.e., the personmust possess self-efficacy) and must perceive an incentive (stimuls, pamudinājums) todo so (i.e., the person's positive expectations from performing the behavior mustoutweigh the negative expectations). Additionally, a person must value the outcomes or consequences that he or she believes will occur (atgadīties, notikt, ienākt prātā, būtsastopama) as a result of performing a specific behavior or action. Outcomes may beclassified as having immediate (tūlītējus) benefits (e.g., feeling energized followingphysical activity) or long-term benefits (e.g., experiencing improvements incardiovascular health as a result of physical activity). But because these expected out-comes are filtered through a person's expectations or perceptions of being able toperform the behavior in the first place, self-efficacy (pašiedvesma) is believed to be thesingle most important characteristic that determines a person's behavior change. Self-efficacy can be increased in several ways, among them by providing clear instructions,providing the opportunity for skill development or training, and modeling the desiredbehavior. To be effective, models must evoke (izraisīt) trust, admiration, and respectfrom the observer(novērotājs) ; models must not, however, appear to represent a levelof behavior that the observer is unable to visualize attaining.(gūt, iegūt, sasniegt. )
Social Support
Often associated with health behaviors such as physical activity, social support isfrequently used in behavioral and social research. There is, however, considerablevariation in how social support is conceptualized and measured. Social support for 
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