Behavior Change Theories and Models
Because theories and models of human behavior can guide the development andrefinement of health promotion and education efforts, this page reviews elements of behavioral and social science theories and models.
Learning theories emphasize that learning a new, complex pattern of behavior, likechanging from a sedentary (sēdošs) to an active lifestyle, normally requires modifyingmany of the small behaviors that compose an overall complex behavior. Principles of behavior modification suggest that a complex-pattern behavior, such as walkingcontinuously for 30 minutes daily, can be learned by first breaking it (down into smaller segments (e.g., walking for 10) minutes daily). Behaviors that are steps toward a finalgoal need to be reinforced and established first, with rewards given for partialaccomplishment if necessary. Incremental increases, such as adding 5 minutes to thedaily walking each week, are then made as the complex pattern of behavior is "shaped"toward the targeted goal. A further complication to the change process is that newpatterns of physical activity behavior must replace or compete with former patterns of inactive behaviors that are often satisfying (e.g., watching television), habitual behaviorse.g., parking close to the door),or behaviors cued (diktēts) by the environment (e.g., thepresence of an elevator).Reinforcement (pastiprināšana) describes the consequences (sekas) that motivatesindividuals either to continue or discontinue behavior. Most behaviors, including physicalactivity, are learned and maintained under fairly complex schedules of reinforcementand anticipated future rewards. Future rewards (apvalvojums, albums) or incentives(darba samaksas premiālā sistēma) may include physical consequences (e.g., lookingbetter), extrinsic (neraksturīgs, nebūtisks) rewards (e.g., receiving praise andencouragement from others, receiving a T-shirt), and intrinsic (būtisks, pasiess,raksturīgs) rewards (e.g., experiencing a feeling of accomplishment (izpildījums,veikums) or gratification (gandarījums) from attaining a personal mile stone).It isimportant to note that although providing
praise(uzslava), encouragement, and other extrinsic (neraksturīgs) rewards
may help people adopt positive lifestyle behaviors,such
external reinforcement (pastiprināšana) may not be reliable
for sustained (ilgstošs)long-term change.
Health Belief Model
The health belief model stipulates (izvirzīt noteikumu) that a person's health-relatedbehavior depends on the person's perception of four critical areas: the severity(stingrība) of a potential illness, the person's susceptibility (jūtīgums) to that illness, thebenefits of taking a preventive action, and the barriers to taking that action. The modelalso incorporates cues (diktēts) to action (e.g., leaving a written reminder to oneself towalk) as important elements in eliciting (izdibināt) or maintaining patterns of behavior.The construct of self-efficacy (iedarbība, spēks) , or a person's confidence in his or her