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Mass Movements

Mass Movements

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Published by: Geography_Student_91 on Jan 29, 2010
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10/23/2011

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SPHERIC PROCESSES,
HAZARD5
AND
MANAGE'IAENT
ART
3.
MA55
AAOVEMENT
Scope
of
Topic:
1.
Mechonisns
of
noss
movemeni
q)
Whot
is
moss
movement?
b)
Sheor
strengfh
ond
sheor
stress
2.
Types
of
moss
movement
o)
Heove
b)
Slide
c)
Flow
d)
Foll
3.
Foctors
offecting
moss
movement
(noturol
ond
onthropogenic)
4.
Effects
of
moss
novemen-t
5.
Mqnogement
of
moss
movement
d)
Mitigotion
Meosures
b)
Responses
to
the
effecis of
moss
movemenfs
Objeciives:
By
the
end
of
this
seclion,
you
should
be
oble
toi
.
Discuss
the
rnechonisrns
of
moss movemen-t
.
compore
the
inlensity
of
ditfercnt
types
of
moss movemen-t
.
Discuss
the
foctorsoffecting
moss
movement
.
Discuss
the
effec-fs
of
moss
movement
.
Assess
fhe sirotegies
used
io
respond
ond
mifigote
to
the
effects
of
moss
rnovement.
Additionol
Reodings/References
:
l
Clork
ond
Smoll
(1990)
Slopes
and
l,l/eathertng.
combridge
University
Press:
6reot
Britoin.
Ch.3
>
Guinness &
Nqgle
(2OO4)
Advanced
aeography.
Hodder
&
Stoughtoni
London
}
Murck,
Skinner, Portee
(1997)
Dcngerous
Earth:
An
fntuoduction lo
6eologicHazards.
John
Wiley
&
Sons,
fnc.:
United
Stqtes
>
Nafional
Lands/ide
fnfornafion
Cenler
hitp://-oeohozords.cr.usgs.qovlhtml
f
ileslnlicgun.hlml
I
Overview
of
EngineetingTe.hniques
fo
Reduce
6rodinghttpr,/,/www.coostol.co.qov,/londf
orm/attoch3.html
>
Geo
FoclsheeltThe
Lqndslide
Hozord
(sep
2001)
 
1.
MECHANI5M5
OF
AAA55
MOVEMENT
q)
Whqt
is
Mqss
,ilovemenf?
Mqss
rnovemen-t
is
the
downhill
movenenf
of
rock
ond
regolith
neor
the
Eorth's
surfoce
primorily
under
the
influence
of
grqvity.
Moss
movement
is on
importont
port
of
denudotion, os
it
moves
moteriol from
higher
elevotions
to
lowerelevotions
where
fronsporting
ogenfs
like
streoms
ond
glociers
conihen
pick
up
the
mqteriol
ond move
it
io
even
lower
elevqliohs.
Moss
movemen-t
ptocesses
ote
occurring
continuously
on
oll
slopes;
some
processes
oct
very
slowly,
others
occur
very
suddenly,
often
with
disostrous
results.They
show
greotvorieiy
of
scole,
rote,
moleriol ond
resuliing
londforms.
b)Sheor Strength
ond
Sheor Sfress
The detdchment
ond
novement
of
eorth
mqteriolsoccurs
if
theshear stress
imposed
is
gredler
lhan
the
shear
ttrength
of
fhendieriol
to
hold i.t
in
place.Hence,
os
long os
sheor
strength
exceeds
shear
stress,
the
rock
of
debris will nof
move.
Shear
sttength
is
a
meosure
of
the
resistance
of
eorth moieriols
to
be
moved
downhill.
Thus,
the
sheor
strength
of
the
moterioi
is
the
mqximum
resastonce
fo
sheor
stress
ond
it
depends on
fhe
inlernol
cohesion
ond
internol
fricfion
of
soilpqrficles.
>
fnturudl
cohesion:
produced
by
the
interldqking
of
gronulor
porticles,poriiculorly
in
cloyey
soils ond
rocks,
which enobles
the
moteriols
to
res-f
ct
on
ongle.
Dry
sond
is
cohesionless. Cohesion
is
independent
of
the
weight
of
rnqteriql obove
lhe
surfoce. The
cohesion
ond
interlocking
of
soilporticles
incredse
theqbility
of
.the
moteriol
1o
stoy
inploce.
>
Inlernal
friction
the
resistonce
of
porticles
of
gronulor
soil
to
slide
ocross eoch
other. This
component
of
sheor
strength
depends
on the
weight
of
moteriol
obove
the
surfoce.
\
 
shear slress
isprimorilyqfunctioh
of
the
force
exerted
by
the
weight
oflhe
moteriol
under
the
influence
ol
grovity
octing
in
the
downsloPe
directioh.Grdvify
is
the
driving
lorce
behind oll slopeprocesses.
The
forceofgrovity
is
continuous,
but
ii
con
move
moteriol onlywhen
it
exceeds
the
cohesive
strength
of
the surfoce
moteriol.The
rotio of
sheor
strehgth
lo
shedr
stress
is
the
safety
foctor.
Sofety
foctor
=
!f;9s151194q1
Sheor
stress
ff
the
sofety
foctor
is
less
thon
1,
fhe
slopeisunstoble.
If
the
sqfety
foctor
isequols
to
or
obove
1,
the
slope is
stoble.
The
slope
of
the
surfoce
detetmines
the
omount
of
stress
thot
occurs
on
eorth
moferiqls.
As
the
slope
5ecomes
sleepet,
the
sheor
stress
becomes
lorger
(Figure
l).
Figure
1.
Shedr
stress
increoses os
the
slope
steepens
Wqfer
odds
weight
to
increose
sheor
stress
bul
olso
octs
fo
lubricote
the
moteriol.
The
movemeni,
especiollyin
the
cose
of
slides
ond
slumps,
is
olong
o
foilure
plone.
The
foilure
plonemoy
be
q
well-delined
loyer
of
cloy
or
rock
upon
which
sits the destobilized surfoce
moteriol.
Humons
induce
mqss movemenfwhen
subjecfing
c
slope
to
o
lood
thol
exceeds
ifs
obility
to
resist
movemenl.
People
building
ho.uses
on scenic
hill
slopes
often
find
their
homes
lhreatened by
o
londslide.
Undercuttinq
of
hrllsides
during
roodconstruction
commonly
crofes
unstoble
slopes, moking
them
prone
to
foilure-

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