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Biology, Chapter Thirty-Five, Notes

Biology, Chapter Thirty-Five, Notes



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Published by: Julie on Apr 23, 2008
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UNIT EIGHT: INVERTEBRATESModern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston)1
Chapter ThirtyChapter ThirtyChapter ThirtyChapter Thirty----Five (Mollusks and Annelids)Five (Mollusks and Annelids)Five (Mollusks and Annelids)Five (Mollusks and Annelids)
SECTION ONE: MOLLUSCASECTION ONE: MOLLUSCASECTION ONE: MOLLUSCASECTION ONE: MOLLUSCACHARACTERISTICS OF MOLLUSKSThere are more than 112,000 species in the phylumMollusca, which makes it the second largest phylum. Mollusksare among several phyla of animals known as
. Theypossess a true coelom, a hollow, fluid-filled cavity that iscompletely surrounded by mesoderm. They differ frompseudocoelomates, which have a body cavity lined by mesodermon the outside and endoderm on the inside.A coelom has several advantages over a pseudocoelom.With a coelom, the muscles of the body wall are separated fromthose of the gut. Therefore, the body wall muscles can contractwithout hindering the movement of food through the gut. Acoelom also provides a space where the circulatory system can transport blood withoutinterference from other internal organs. The coelomates body plan is shared by annelids,arthropods, echinoderms, and chordates.Another feature shared by most aquatic mollusks and annelids is alarval stage of development called a trochophoretrochophoretrochophoretrochophore. In some species, thetrochophore hatches from the egg case and exists as free-swimming larva.Cilia on the surface propel the larva through the water and draw food intoits mouth. They contribute to the dispersal of their species since they arecarried by ocean currents and tides. Since both mollusks and annelids havetrochophores, they may have evolved from a common ancestor.BODY PLAN OF MOLLUSKSThe body of a mollusk is generally divided up into the main regions of the head- foot and the visceral mass. The head-foot consists of the head, which contains the mouthand sensory structures, and the foot, a large, muscular organ used for locomotion. Abovethe head-foot is the visceral massvisceral massvisceral massvisceral mass, which contains the heart and the organs of digestion,excretion, and reproduction. The coelom is limited to a space around the heart. Coveringthe visceral mass is a layer of epidermis called the mantlemantlemantlemantle.In most mollusks, the mantle secretes one or more hard shells containing calciumcarbonate. While shells may protect the soft bodies of mollusks from predators, theyalso reduce the surface area available for gas exchange. This disadvantage is offset bygills, which provide a large surface area that is in contact with a rich supply of blood. Gillsare specialized for the exchange of gases. They are protected within the mantle cavitymantle cavitymantle cavitymantle cavity,a space between the mantle and visceral mass.
UNIT EIGHT: INVERTEBRATESModern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston)2
Mollusks do not have segmented bodies, unlike many coelomates. Most of themare bilaterally symmetrical, which is apparent in the nervous system. Paired clusters of nerve cells called gangliagangliagangliaganglia are situated in the head-foot and visceral mass and areconnected by two long pairs of nerve cords. Nerve cells in the ganglia control musclesthat are involved in locomotion and feeding and process sensory information fromspecialized cells that respond to light, touch, and chemicals in the environment.The radularadularadularadula is the main feeding adaptation of many mollusks. It is a flexible,tonguelike strip of tissue covered with tough, abrasive teeth that point backward.Terrestrial snails use it to cut through leaves, while aquatic snails mainly use it forscraping up algae.Structural differences are used by biologists to divide mollusks into seven classes.The ones discussed in these notes are class Gastropoda, class Bivalvia, and classCephalopoda.CLASS GASTROPODAGastropodsGastropodsGastropodsGastropods make up the largest class of mollusks. Most of the40,000 species of gastropods have a single shell, however, there areothers have no shell at all.During larval development, gastropods undergo
, a processin which the visceral mass twists 180 degrees in relation to the head. Thisbrings the mantle cavity, anus, and gills to the front of the animal. As aresult, snails can withdraw into their shells when threatened.Through wavelike muscular contraction of the foot, gastropods canmove smoothly over surfaces. Gastropods have an open circulatorysystem, which means the circulatory fluid, hemolymphhemolymphhemolymphhemolymph, does not remain within vessels. Itis collected from the gills or lungs, pumped through the heart, and released directly intospaces into the tissues. These fluid-filled spaces compose what is known as a hemocoelhemocoelhemocoelhemocoel,
UNIT EIGHT: INVERTEBRATESModern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston)3
or blood cavity. From the hemocoel, the hemolymph returns via the gills or lung to theheart.SnailSnails are gastropods that live on land, in freshwater, and in the ocean. They have two eyes at the end of delicate tentacles that assist snails in locating food.These tentacles can retract into the head. Aquatic snailsrespire through gills in the mantle cavity.In land snails, the mantle cavity acts as a lung thatexchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with the air. Themembrane that lines the mantle cavity must be kept moistto allow for diffusion of gases. For this reason, land snailsare most active when the air has a high moisture content.They can become inactive and retreat into their shellsduring dry periods. They seal the opening to their shellwith a mucous plug to keep from drying out.Other GastropodsSlugs are terrestrial gastropods that look likesnails without shells. They respire through the lining of theirmantle cavity and hide in moist, shady places by day to avoiddrying out. They come out at night to feed.Nudibranchs, “naked gills,” are marine gastropods thatlack shells. Gas exchange occurs across their entire bodysurface. They can be covered with numerous ruffles or fingerlikeextensions that increase the total area available for gasexchange.Many species of gastropods have separate sexes, buthermaphrodites are common among aquatic and terrestrial gastropods.CLASS BIVALVIABivalvesBivalvesBivalvesBivalves have shells divided into two halves, or valves,connected by a hinge. A bivalve can close its shell by contracting thepowerful adductor muscles that are attached to the inside surface of each valve. When the adductor muscles relax, the valves open.Each valve consists of three layers that are secreted by themantle. The thin outer layer protects the shell from acidic conditionsin the water. The thick middle layer of calcium carbonate strengthensthe shell. The smooth inner layer protects the animal’s soft body.Most bivalves are sessile. Some species extend their foot intothe sand and fill it with hemolymph to form an anchor. The muscles of the foot then

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