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Introduction to Limits

Introduction to Limits

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Published by Ali Kh

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Published by: Ali Kh on Jan 29, 2010
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 Project of Group 7.a of Calculus for Teachers Class
ContentsTangent Lines and Rates of ChangeThe LimitOne-Sided LimitsLimit PropertiesComputing LimitsInfinite LimitsContinuityThe Definition of the Limit
IntroductionThe topic that we will be examining in this project is that of Limits. We will be seeing limits in a variety of examples.Here is a quick listing of the material that will be covered in this project.
Tangent Lines and Rates of Change
The Limit
 – Here we will take a conceptual look at limits and try to get agrasp on just what they are and what they can tell us.
 One-Sided Limits
 – A brief introduction to one-sided limits.
 Limit Properties
 – Properties of limits that we’ll need to use in computinglimits. We will also compute some basic limits in this section
Computing Limits-
any of the limits we’ll be asked to compute will not be“simple” limits. In other words, we won’t be able to just apply the propertiesand be done. In this section we will look at several types of limits thatrequire some work before we can use the limit properties to compute them.
 Infinite Limits
 – Here we will take a look at limits that have a value of  positive or negative
infinity. We’ll also take a brief look at verticalasymptotes.
 – In this section we will introduce the concept of continuity andhow it relates to limits. We will also see the Mean Value Theorem in thissection.
The Definition of the Limit
 – We will give the exact definition of severalof the limits covered in this section. We’ll also give the exact definition of continuity.
:We are thankful for the assistance given by our teachers
Dr. M Refai Dr. H Al-QasemDr.A Kenzo Dr.M Khasawneh
QU-who provided us by their knowledge , texts, software (mathematica ).It was only through the cooperation of these and other individuals that wewere able to finish this training course successfully to serve our students.Thanks
GROUP 7a. Members
2010-Qatar University)
 Ali Alrawashdeh Omar Younis Basil Madi Hisham Ibraheem
Rates of change
Differential Calculus is the study of rates of change of a function y = f with respect to anindependent variable (usually x or t). We are usually interested in how much y changeswhenever x changes by 1 unit. It is easy to quantify average rates of change since thereare 2 points involved in calculating the average. The following formula can be used tofind the distance covered by an object in motion over time interval t:d = rt where d is the distance traveled in some time periodr is the rate that the distance changed during a time periodt is the number of time periodsIf we wanted to know the average rate of change for some time period and we knew thedistance covered and the length of the time period, we could use the formula:r=d/t where r is the average rate of change per time periodWhat if we wanted to know how fast an object was moving at a point in time? We knowit is in motion since we can clearly see it moving and can easily calculate any averagerate of speed that we are interested in. The above formula as it is however, cannot give usan instantaneous rate of speed since there will be no time period and no distance traveledat a point in time. In other words, t = 0 and d = 0 .To avoid the problem of division by 0, we will purposely refrain from discussing that tmight equal 0. Instead, we will only consider values of r when t is very close to 0 butnever equal to 0. In other words, we will calculate the rate of speed over very short time periods on the left side of t = 0 and the rate of speed over very short time periods on theright side of t = 0. If r appears to be approaching the same value on the left side as it is onthe right side, then it is probably safe to assume that that value is the instantaneous rate of change that we are looking for.This process of finding a value that a function is approaching as its independent variableapproaches a particular value is called finding the limit of the function at that value.While calculating the short time periods mentioned above can be helpful in getting anidea of the value of a particular limit, mathematical methods are available to yield theexact value, if it exists.

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