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Advances in Textile Wastewater Treatment

Advances in Textile Wastewater Treatment



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This article describes use of Membrane Bioreactor and UV-Ozonation processes for treating textile wastewater.
This article describes use of Membrane Bioreactor and UV-Ozonation processes for treating textile wastewater.

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Published by: Sellappan Eswaramoorthi on Apr 23, 2008
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Advances in Textile Waste Water Treatment: The Case for UV-Ozonationand Membrane Bioreactor for Common Effluent Treatment Plantsin Tirupur, Tamil Nadu, India.
, K.Dhanapal and D.S.ChauhanEnvironment With People's Involvement & Co-ordination in IndiaCoimbatore, India.
Textile waste water treatment for industrial reuse remains as a complicated problem due to severalreasons. Among them are 1) High Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) content of the waste water; 2)Presence of toxic heavy metals such as Cr, As, Cu, Zn, etc.; 3) Non-biodegradable nature of organicdye stuffs present in the effluent; 4) Presence of free-chlorine and dissolved silica. Thus, any adoptedtreatment system, especially with respect to primary treatment, should be able to address all theseissues.Segregation of dye bath and wash water, which was adopted earlier under conventional physico-chemical treatment (lime ferrous treatment for achieving flocculation) is not an viable option to recover water for industrial reuse due to the fact that the highly concentrated dye bath can not be passed intoreverse osmosis membrane system utilized to recover water. Thus, for achieving desired results, thedye bath is combined with wash water and then the combined waste water is treated.Many technological advancements were made for treating textile waste water. Of most importance isthe primary treatment where BOD, COD, TSS, colour, and pH are reduced/adjusted to desirable extendin order to make the effluent suitable for subsequent treatment by the reverse osmosis system that shallrecover water for reuse.As far as textile waste water treatment is concerned, colour removal and reduction of BOD/COD arethe main problems to be addressed in the primary treatment. Most commonly utilized primarytreatment processes are i) conventional physico-chemical treatment; ii) conventional biologicaltreatment where continous aeration is carried out to reduce BOD; iii) chlorination; iv) ozonation(with/without ultra violet irradiation. Recent advancements, however, made the adoption of ozonationwith/without ultra violet irradiation and Membrane Bioreactor as the most suitable alternatives. Due tocost and energy considerations, though UV/Ozonation and MBR technologies were develped over decades and effectively utilized in various kinds of industries, only now it has become possible to adoptthem for textile waste water treatment.
1Presently with ECP CONSULTING, www.ecpconsulting.in
Effluent Generation Process
Effluent is generated under various processes during textile wet processing. These major processesinclude i) bleaching; ii) neutralising; iii) washing; iv) dyeing; v) washing; vi) acid wash; vii) washing;viii) soaping; ix) hot wash; x) fixing and softening. The list of chemicals used in bleaching and dyeingare presented in Table-1.1 and Table-1.2.
Table-1.1: List of chemicals used in bleaching.
Chemical Utilization (per 100 kg of cloth)
 Soft flow machineWinch
Wetting agent0.5 kg0.5 kgCaustic soda2.5 kg4.0 kgPeroxide3.0 kg4.0 kgLubricants0.2 kg0.3 kgStabilizers0.2 kg0.3 kgPeroxide killer (oxidizing agent)1.0 kg1.0 kgAcetic acid2.0 kg2.0 kg
Table-1.2: List of chemicals used in dyeing.
ChemicalUtilization (per 100 kg of cloth)
 Soft flowWinch
Lubricants0.3 kg0.4 kgSequestering agent0.6 kg1 kgDye stuff150 g for light shade.1.5 kg for medium shade.10 kg for dark shade.150 g for light shade.1.5 kg for medium shade.10 kg for dark shade.Soda ashLight shade - 6 g/L;Medium shade – 11 g/L;Dark shade – 20 g/LLight shade - 6 g/L;Medium shade – 11 g/L;Dark shade – 20 g/LSodium chlorideLight shade 15 g/L;Medium shade – 45 g/L;Dark shade – 90 g/LLight shade – 15 g/L;Medium shade – 45 g/L;Dark shade – 90 g/LAcetic acid2.5 kg3.0 kgSoap1.0 kg1.0 kgFixing1.0 kg1.0 kgSoftener2.0 kg2.0 kg
The selection of dye by member units shall depend upon the type of fibres being dyed, desired shade,dyeing uniformity and fastness (stability or resistance of colourants to influences such as, light, alkali,Page-2/17
etc.). Reactive dyes are normally used by most of the members while disperse and direct dyes are alsoused sometimes. Sulphur and Vat dyes are only rarely utilized. Some of the brand names of the dyes being used by the member units is given here:1)Procion dyes.2)Remazol dyes.3)Drimarene dyes.4)Solophynyl dyes.For 100 kg of cloth, the volume of water added in the dye bath shall be 800 L in the case of soft-flowmachines, and 1500 L in the case of winch.The main pollutants generated by bleaching includes chlorinated organics, BOD, COD, oxidizingagents, alkali and acids. Dyeing process generate many pollutants viz., salts, surfactants, levellers,lubricants, alkali, volatile organics, cleaning solvents, stabilizers, catalysts, grease resisting agents,exhausting agents, soaping agents, softeners etc., apart from the unfixed dye in the bath, which is letout after dyeing operation is over. The typical raw effluent characteristics of textile waste water are presented in Table-1.3.
Table-1.3: Typical raw effluent characteristics of the textile waste waterParameter Range
 pH6 - 10Temperature35-45
CTotal dissolved solids8,000 12,000 mg /LBOD300 500 mg/LCOD1000 1500 mg/LTotal suspended solids200 400 mg /LChloride3000 6000 mg/LFree chlorine<10 mg /LSodium70 %Trace elements ligands (Fe, Zn,Cu,As,Ni ,B, F,Mn,V, Hg, PO
, CN)<10 mg/LOil & grease10 30 mg/LTNK (as-N)10 - 30 mg /L NO
-N< 5mg/LFree ammonia< 10 mg/LSO
600 –1000 mg/LSilica< 15 mg/LWith due considerations to the raw effluent characteristics given in Table-1.3, the following parametersrequire much attention with regard to implementing a good waste water treatment scheme.i)pHPage-3/17

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