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Object Oriented Programming Language

Object Oriented Programming Language

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Published by Talha Maqsood
about computer programing language
about computer programing language

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Published by: Talha Maqsood on Jan 30, 2010
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Object-oriented programming(OOP) Language
Definition & Explanation
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming languagemodel organized around "objects" rather than "actions" and data rather thanlogic. Historically, a program has been viewed as a logical procedure thattakes input data, processes it, and produces output data.A type of programming in which programmers define not only the data typeof a data structure, but also the types of operations (functions) that can beapplied to the data structure. In this way, the data structure becomes an
object 
that includes both data and functions. In addition, programmers cancreate relationships between one object and another. For example, objectscan
inherit 
characteristics from other objects The object-oriented paradigm was first conceived in the 1960's andimplemented in languages such as SIMULA-67. One of the initial concernswith early object-oriented languages was their efficiency. Programs writtenusing structured languages, such as Pascal and C, executed faster thanprograms written using early object-oriented languages. Although programswhich used the object-oriented programming were more extensible andeasier to maintain from a programmer's point of view, an unacceptable pricehad to be paid in the program's runtime behaviour. Recently, however, theruntime execution of object-oriented programs has improved considerably. This has been due in part to both the development of faster hardware andthe creation of efficient languages and compilers which support object-oriented programming, such as C++. These facts, in addition to the ever-increasing accessibility of object-oriented languages to the commonprogrammer has created a major evolution in the area of softwaredevelopment. There is, as yet, no universally agreed upon definition of exactly whatconstitutes object-oriented programming. Booch suggests:``Object-oriented programming is a method of implementation in whichprograms are organized as cooperative collections of objects, each of whichrepresents an instance of some class, and whose classes are all members of a hierarchy of classes united via inheritance relationships.''
 TALHA Maqsood| Object Oriented Programming Languages1
 
From this definition, one can infer that object-oriented programming consistsof instantiating a number of objects which communicate with one another soas to achieve some desired behaviour. This paradigm is natural with howhumans see the world; as a series of cause-effect relationships, where anaction performed on one object has effects on the objects with which itcommunicates.Object-Oriented Programming (OOP), in computer science, type of high-levelcomputer language that uses self-contained, modular instruction sets fordefining and manipulating aspects of a computer program. These discrete,predefined instruction sets are called
objects
and they may be used todefine variables, data structures, and procedures for executing dataoperations. In OOP, objects have built-in rules for communicating with oneanother. By using objects as stable, preexisting building blocks,programmers can pursue their main objectives and specify tasks from thetop down, manipulating or combining objects to modify existing programsand to create entirely new onesObject-oriented programming (OOP) languages, such as C++ and Java, arebased on traditional high-level languages, but they enable a programmer tothink in terms of collections of cooperating objects instead of lists of commands. Objects, such as a circle, have properties such as the radius of the circle and the command that draws it on the computer screen. Classesof objects can inherit features from other classes of objects. For example, aclass defining squares can inherit features such as right angles from a classdefining rectangles. This set of programming classes simplifies theprogrammer’s task, resulting in more “reusable” computer code. Reusablecode allows a programmer to use code that has already been designed,written, and tested. This makes the programmer’s task easier, and it resultsin more reliable and efficient programs.
The programming challenge
 The programming challenge was seen as how to write the logic, not how todefine the data. Object-oriented programming takes the view that what wereally care about are the objects we want to manipulate rather than thelogic required to manipulate them.
Object-Oriented Programming Concepts
 TALHA Maqsood| Object Oriented Programming Languages
 
2
 
Objects are key to understanding
object-oriented 
technology. An object is asoftware bundle of related state and behavior. Software objects are oftenused to model the real-world objects that you find in everyday life. Softwareobjects are conceptually similar to real-world objects: they too consist of state and related behavior. An object stores its state in
fields
(variables insome programming languages) and exposes its behavior through
methods
(functions in some programming languages). Methods operate on an object'sinternal state and serve as the primary mechanism for object-to-objectcommunication. Hiding internal state and requiring all interaction to beperformed through an object's methods is known as
data encapsulation
a fundamental principle of object-oriented programmingBundling code into individual software objects provides a number of benefits, including:1.Modularity: The source code for an object can be written andmaintained independently of the source code for other objects. Oncecreated, an object can be easily passed around inside the system.2.Information-hiding: By interacting only with an object's methods, thedetails of its internal implementation remain hidden from the outsideworld.3.Code re-use: If an object already exists (perhaps written by anothersoftware developer), you can use that object in your program. Thisallows specialists to implement/test/debug complex, task-specificobjects, which you can then trust to run in your own code.
4.
Pluggability and debugging ease: If a particular object turns out to beproblematic, you can simply remove it from your application and plugin a different object as its replacement. This is analogous to fixingmechanical problems in the real world. If a bolt breaks, you replace
it 
,not the entire machine.
A class is a prototype from which objects are created.
Inheritance provides a powerful and natural mechanism for organizing andstructuring your software. Different kinds of objects often have a certain
 TALHA Maqsood| Object Oriented Programming Languages3

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