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Dorel Lucanu Proiectarea Algoritmilor

Dorel Lucanu Proiectarea Algoritmilor

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Universitatea ”Al. I. Cuza” Ia¸siFacultatea de Informatic˘aDepartamentul deˆInv˘at¸˘amˆant la Distant¸˘a
Dorel LucanuProiectarea algoritmilor
2004-2005
 
Adresa autorului:
Universitatea “Al.I.Cuza”Facultatea de Informatic˘astr. Berthelot 16700483 - Ia¸si, Romˆaniae-mail:
dlucanu@infoiasi.ro
web home page:
http://www.infoiasi.ro/
˜
dlucanu
 
Cuprins
1 Introducere 12 Despre algoritmi 2
2.1 Limbaj algoritmic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2 Probleme ¸si programe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.3 M˘asurarea performant¸elor unui algoritm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3 Sortare intern˘a 23
3.1 Sortare bazat˘a pe comparat¸ii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4 C˘autare 32
4.1 C˘autare ˆın liste liniare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334.2 Arbori binari de c˘autare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334.3 Tipuri de daa avansate pentru c˘autare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5 Grafurile ca tip de date 46
5.1 Definit¸ii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465.2 Tipurile de date abstracte
Graf 
¸si
Digraf 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485.3 Implementarea cu matrice de adiacent¸˘a (incident¸˘a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 5.4 Implementarea cu liste de adiacent¸˘a dinamice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535.5 Exercit¸ii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6 Enumerare 60
6.1 Enumerarea permut˘arilor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606.2 Enumerarea elementelor produsului cartezian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
7 Despre paradigmele de proiectare 64
7.1 Aspecte generale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647.2 Un exemplu simplu de paradigm˘a: eliminarea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657.3 Alte considerat¸ii privind paradigmele de proiectare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
8 Algoritmi greedy67
8.1 Memorarea ecient˘a a programelor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678.2 Prezentare intuitiv˘a a paradigmei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 688.3 Arbori Human . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 698.4 Problema rucsacului I (varianta continu˘a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 718.5 Exercit¸ii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
9 Divide-et-impera76
9.1 Prezentare generaa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 769.2 Sortare prin interclasare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 779.3 Sortarea rapid˘a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 809.4 Exercit¸ii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83iii

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