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solar

solar

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Published by mah11489

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Published by: mah11489 on Jan 30, 2010
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03/25/2013

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CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION
Solar energy systems have emerged as a viable source of renewable energy over the past two or three decades, and are now widely used for a variety of industrial and domesticapplications. Such
 
systems are based on a solar collector, designed to collect the sun’s energyand to convert it into either electrical power or thermal energy. The literature contains manystudies regarding the use of solar collectors to implement such applications as light fixtures,window covering systems, cookers, and so forth . In general, the power developed in suchapplications depends fundamentally upon the amount of solar energy captured by thecollector, for optimal efficiency, solar panels should be perpendicular to sunlight, when theillumination is strongest and thus the problem of developing tracking schemes capable of following the trajectory of the sun throughout the course of the day on a year-round basis hasreceived significant coverage in the literature.
 
For example, various schemes have been proposed for optimizing the tilt angle and orientation of solar collectors designed for differentgeographical latitudes or possible utilization periods. In general, the results showed that byusing mathematical models to optimize the tilt angle and orientation of the solar collector, ayearly gain of more than 5% could be obtained in the captured solar radiation compared tothe case in which the collector was fixed on a horizontal surface. Moreover, it has been foundthat the amount of solar energy captured by a tilted collector could be increased by more than40% by adjusting the tilt angle on a seasonal basis.The position of the sun with respect to that of the earth changes in a cyclic manner during the course of a calendar year. Tracking the position of the sun in order to expose asolar panel to maximum radiation at any given time is the main purpose of a solar trackingPV system. A diagram1.1 depicting the variation of the movement of the sun on annual basisis shown below. From the diagram depicting the movement of the sun we observe that asingle axis of rotation is does not provide good efficiency , since panel needs tilting on bothside also a double axis tracking system is much superior and more feasible and adaptive thana single axis tracking system.
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Fig1. 1 Variation of the movement of the sun on annual
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Fig1. 2 General block diagram of the project.
The Solar radiation mechanism represents the panel and the gear mechanism. The panel collects the incident radiation ,the gear mechanism gives the movement andmechanical support to the panel and the whole assembly . Sensors are used to sense theintensity of light. Here two sensor assembly is used .The difference in the intensity sense bythe two sensor is used to track the optimum position of the panel. The sensor feed the inputsto microcontroller. The microcontroller Section consists of the control circuit which analysesthe inputs form the sensors and then the required signals to the driving circuits.Driving circuits provides the power required by the two stepper motors to run. The drivingcircuits vary the current to the motors to get the panel in the required position which dependsupon the inputs from the microcontroller.The two stepper motors provide the double axis tracking. The two motors make it possible for the panel to track the sun for almost any position in the sky.
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