Solar energy systems have emerged as a viable source of renewable energy over the past two or three decades, and are now widely used for a variety of industrial and domesticapplications. Such
systems are based on a solar collector, designed to collect the sun’s energyand to convert it into either electrical power or thermal energy. The literature contains manystudies regarding the use of solar collectors to implement such applications as light fixtures,window covering systems, cookers, and so forth . In general, the power developed in suchapplications depends fundamentally upon the amount of solar energy captured by thecollector, for optimal efficiency, solar panels should be perpendicular to sunlight, when theillumination is strongest and thus the problem of developing tracking schemes capable of following the trajectory of the sun throughout the course of the day on a year-round basis hasreceived significant coverage in the literature.
For example, various schemes have been proposed for optimizing the tilt angle and orientation of solar collectors designed for differentgeographical latitudes or possible utilization periods. In general, the results showed that byusing mathematical models to optimize the tilt angle and orientation of the solar collector, ayearly gain of more than 5% could be obtained in the captured solar radiation compared tothe case in which the collector was fixed on a horizontal surface. Moreover, it has been foundthat the amount of solar energy captured by a tilted collector could be increased by more than40% by adjusting the tilt angle on a seasonal basis.The position of the sun with respect to that of the earth changes in a cyclic manner during the course of a calendar year. Tracking the position of the sun in order to expose asolar panel to maximum radiation at any given time is the main purpose of a solar trackingPV system. A diagram1.1 depicting the variation of the movement of the sun on annual basisis shown below. From the diagram depicting the movement of the sun we observe that asingle axis of rotation is does not provide good efficiency , since panel needs tilting on bothside also a double axis tracking system is much superior and more feasible and adaptive thana single axis tracking system.