some of what we have learned over the yearsabout how to implement them effectively(Chappelow. 2004):1. An as.sessmeiit activity is not necessarilydevelopmental. Three-hundred-sixty-degreefeedback should not be a stand-alone event. Inaddition to assessment there need to be devel-opment planning and follow-up activities.
Boss support is critical for the process
as well as for buy-in for the recipient'sspecific developmental goals stemmingfrom the feedback.
The 360-degree feedback process works bestif it starts with executives at the
of anorganization and cascades downward through-out the organization.
Shoddy administration of a 360-degree feed-back process can be fatal.
The timing of the process accounts for otherorganizational realities that could dilute orconfound its impact.Another kind of leadership developmentmethod gaining popularity during the ^^^^^past 20 years has involved teams(Ginnett, 1990). The prevalence andimportance of teams in organizationstoday, and the unique challenges ofleading teams, make it easy to forgetthat teams were
always so perva-sive a part of our organizational lives.One way to convey the magnitude ofthat shift is to share an anecdoteinvolving one of our colleagues.During his doctoral work in organiza-tional behavior at Yale about 20 years
our colleague Robert Ginnettwould tell others about his special
Development todaymeans providingpeople opportuni-ties to learn fromtheir work ratherthan taking themaway from theirwork to learn.
interest in the leadership of teams. Routinely, he
they would assume he musi be an athleticcoach; who else, they'd say. would be interestedin teams?
Importance of a Leader'sEmotional Resonance withand Impact on Others
Twenty years ago. our understanding of lead-ership in organizations was dominated by theclassic two-factor approach focusing on task andrelationship behaviors. That general approachcan be characterized as
in nature,as distinguished from a qualitatively differentapproach often described as
Transactional leadership is characterized bymutually beneficial exchanges between partiesto optimize mutual benefit including the accom-plishment of necessary organizational tasks. Theexchange-model nature of transactional leadershiptends to produce predictable and somewhat short-lived outcomes. Transformational leadershiptouched followers' deeper values and sense ofhigher purpose, and led to higher levels of fol-lower commitment and effort and inore enduringchange. Transformational leaders provide com-pelling visions of a better future and inspire trustthrough seemingly unshakeable self-confidenceand conviction.Conger (1999) reviewed 15 years" research inthe related fields of charismatic and transforma-tional leadership, and observed that scholarlyinterest in these areas may be traceable to changesin the global competitive business environment atthat time such as competitive pressures to rein-vent themselves and challenges to employeecommitment. Prior to that time, leadershipresearchers generally had not distinguishedbetween the roles of leading and managing: Aperson in any position of authoritywas largely assumed to hold a leader-ship role. It was a novel idea thatleadership and management mightrepresent ditterent kinds of roles andbehaviors. Hunt (1999) was evenmore blunt about the state of scholar-ly research in the field t>f leadershipin the 1980s. He described it as agloom-and-doom period character-ized by boring work, inconsequentialquestions, and static answers.Research in the areas of transforma-tional and charismatic leadership bothenergized scholars and interestedorganizational practitioners.One factor presumably underlying the interestin charismatic and transformational leaders is thenature and strength of their emotional impact onothers. The nature of the leader's emotional con-nectedness to others is also apparent in the growinginterest over the past decade in topics like theleader's genuineness, authenticity, credibility, andtrustworthiness (Goleman, et al., 2002; Collins,2001). These seem related more to the
quality of a leader's relationships with others thanto specific leader behaviors and competencies.Attention given during the last decade to the con-cept of emotional intelligence also attests to thatshifting interest. For example, Goleman, et al.(2002) present data that a leader's ability to
26 HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING