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That's Experience! :P

That's Experience! :P

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How not to write a Paper
How not to write a Paper

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Published by: avishwas on Jan 30, 2010
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Implementation of Connectivity and Handover through WirelessSensor Node based Techniques
Prof. K.Chandrasekaran,
In this paper a scheme for handoff and connectivity, based on wireless sensor nodetechniques is proposed.Scenes are created in Qualnet and simulated for a simple case. Results are discussed.
A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wirelessnetwork consisting of spatially distributed autonomousdevices using sensors to co-operatively monitor  physical or environmental conditions, such astemperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or  pollutants, at different locations. The developmentof wireless sensor 
was originally motivated by military applications such as battlefieldsurveillance. However, wireless sensor networks arenow used in many industrial and civilian applicationareas,
including industrial
 process monitoring and
control, machine health monitoring, environment andhabitat monitoring, healthcare applications, homeautomation, and traffic control.In addition to one or more sensors, each node ina sensor network is typically equipped with a radiotransceiver or other wireless communications device, asmall microcontroller, and an energy source, usually a battery. The envisaged size of a single sensor nodecan vary from shoebox-sized nodes down to devicesthe size of grain of dust, although functioning 'motes'of genuine microscopic dimensions have yet to becreated. The cost of sensor nodes is similarlyvariable, depending on the size of the sensor network and the complexity required of individual sensor nodes. Size and cost constraints on sensor 
nodesresultin corresponding constraints on resources such asenergy, memory, computational speed and bandwidth. A sensor network normally constitutesa wireless ad-hoc network, meaning that each sensor supports a multi-hop routing algorithm (severalnodes may forward data packets to the basestation). In computer science and telecommunications,wireless sensor  Networks are an active research area. [1]
In this research we propose a scheme titled
WSN based handoff techniques for seamlessroaming in wireless communication
. The flowdiagram is shown in figure 4. Here each
 (motes are deployed randomly in remote areas likeforests, areas with less habitation etc.) is equippedwith the capability to detect and recognize a mobilestation. Whenever a mobile station (MS) is unable tocommunicate to the Base station (BS) due to thenon availability of signals it searches for nearby motes.Motes in turn, acknowledge the mobile nodes aboutits presence. These motes are already having an ideaabout the existence/location of other motes in itsvicinity. These motes forward the MS request to other motes until the request reaches the nearest BS. BScan now steer their narrow beam antennas to the exactlocation of these MS with enhanced signal strength.In cases where the steering of antennas is notfeasible satellite based routing is tried. In the presentdays antenna steering are not mechanical movement, but steering is achieved with the use of array of antennas. Once the link is established all the motesinvolved in the routing are out of the scenario, toconserve power.
The flow diagram shows the procedure involvedin implementing handoff while a Base station is notavailable for immediate access. The MS searches for anear by WSN mote and sends a message that it needsto find a base station. The mote in turn forwardsthis message to its neighbor. The mote knows thelocation of its neighbor.Motes search for BS by forwarding the messageto all possible neighbors along the route until a BS islocated. The message contains the exact location of MS. The BS on getting the information that a MSneeds handoff, contacts the area MSC. MSC makes adecision as to which is the best BS that cancommunicate with this MS.
The BS starts a process of steering its antennatowards the MS. If steering and communicating is not possible, then the information is sent to satellite
 Implementation of Connectivity
14stations to locate the MS and start communication.
Scenarios to demonstrate WSN handoff Technique
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 1
Handoff algorithm with WSN
InterJRI Computer Science and Networking, Vol. 1, Issue 1, July 2009
15Figure one shows a scene that is created withtwo
16 WSN nodes, one satellitestation and way points for MS movement path. TheM
move such that they reach half way on the routetowards the opposite BS and halt there as in fig. 2.At this point the mobile should be detected by thesatellite station.The results show the outputs at the various OSIlayers. Figure 3 shows the signals transmitted. Fig 4highlights the broadcast packets sent over thechannel. IP packets received are clear in fig. 5. User defined packets from application layer are at fig 6. Number of updated packets received as per theBellman ford algorithm is in Fig. 7.The changes in various parameters in the QSI layerswith wireless sensor nodes and without wirelesssensor nodes are listed below.
Physical Layer (802.11)
 Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8

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