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Popular Mechanics - Milling Practices

Popular Mechanics - Milling Practices

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Published by: sonofsilas on Jan 30, 2010
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07/10/2013

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RODUCING accurate
work efficiently with a
horizontal-spindle
milling
machine
re-
quires accessories that clamp and support
the work rigidly on the machine table.
These are necessary to resist the machin-
ing
forces
caused
by the
milling
cutter
re-
moving material from the work, as theseforces create vibration which results inchatter, the worst enemy of machining.
Maximum
rigidity
is
attained when
the
table and the cutter are as close to the
frame of the machine as possible. Beforeclamping the work to the table, the arbor,which
is the
"heart"
of the
milling
ma-
chine, should
be
tested
for
runout
with
a
dial
indicator
fastened
to the table as inFig. 1. Runout, which is the difference inparallelism between the arbor and the ta-
ble and ways, should not exceed .002 in. A
runout
of
.005
or
.006
in.
increases
with
higher spindle speed and, if permitted toexist,
will
ruin
the
arbor
and its
supportbearing, shorten cutter life and result inpoor work. Arbor runout is due to various
causes,
such
as a
bent arbor,
resulting
from taking excessively deep cuts or toofast a feed, wear in the arbor-support bear-
ing and burrs on the arbor shank or in thetapered bore of the spindle. When making
a cutter assembly, the arbor support
should be positioned before tightening thearbor nut. If the arbor was true when test-
ed with the dial indicator and the cutter is
untrue after assembly, check between the
collars for chips or dirt. If the cutter runsout radially, its bore is larger than the di-ameter of the arbor. The bearing in thearm support must be kept well-lubricated.When the arbor is removed, it should becleaned thoroughly and when not in use itshould be wrapped in cloth and placed in adrawer or cabinet.
Accessories
for
clamping
the
work con-sist of simple T-slot bolts and strap clamps,as in Figs. 5 and 6; a milling-machine vise,Fig. 8, or the more complicated indexingequipment shown in Figs. 11 and 12. Thecorrect and incorrect locations of theT-slot bolt in relation to the work areshown in Fig. 3. The casting being ma-chined
internally with
an end
mill
in
Fig.
2
presents no clamping problem, as the flat
surfaces of the casting rest on the table
and the T-slot bolt projects through a holein the work. The comparatively largercasting in Fig. 5, also being machined in-
ternally, is clamped at each end with a
T-slot
bolt and
blocks.
Milling
forces
in
this
case
are
much
less
than
in
Fig.
6
where
By H. J. Chamberland
they are increased by the
wider cut being taken with a
shell
end
mill.
Where
a
number
of
differentmachining operations are to be done, theclamping naturally should be sufficient totake
care
of the
heaviest load.
An
irregu-
larly
shaped
casting,
such as the one
shownin Fig. 7, must be blocked at the bottom toalign the work accurately and prevent dis-tortion due to clamping. Machining forces
are
reduced
to a
minimum
when
the
mill-
ing machine is used, as in Fig. 4, to lay outand
center-drill
holes
that are to be
drilled
and
bored
later. Nevertheless,
the
high
de-
gree
of
accuracy
involved
still
makes
clamping a major factor.
The
milling
vise,
shown
in use for
con-
tour
milling,
Fig.
8,
offers
an
efficientmethod
of
holding
some
types
of
work.
The
base
of the
vise
is
bolted
to the
milling-ma-
Above,
a
dial
indicator
it
used
to lest
accuracy
of
milling-machine arbor. Below, only one T-slot bolt
is needed to hold small casting in place on table
P
70
 
7 1
Large castings, as shown above and below, must be Above, irregularly shaped work is blocked at bottom,clamped down at each end. See Fig. 3 for the correct Below, milling-machine vise, which is bolted to topposition of T-slot bolt in relation to the workpiece of table, is used to hold work for contour milling
chine table and the work is held between
the vise jaws. Many such vises are
equipped with a graduated swivel basewhich permits the work to be set at anyangle to the table ways.Two types of indexing equipment are ingeneral use. These are the rotary indexingtable, Fig. 11, and indexing heads, or cen-ters, Figs. 9 and 13. The rotary indexingtable is used for cutting straight or circularslots and grooves in flat work, usually cir-cular in shape. The base of the indexingtable is bolted to the milling-machine ta-ble and the work is clamped to the index-ing table, which can be rotated and locked
 
Above, work is clamped to a rotary indexing tablewhich is bolted to milling machine. Below, gear isused to position work held between indexing centers
Accurate spacing
for
milling
the
teeth
of anangular cutter is accomplished by mounting the
work in a chuck fastened to an indexing center
which, in turn, is bolted to an indexing table.
Angular cutter is then heat-treated and ground
in place at the desired position. Indexingcenters, which resemble the head and tail-stock assemblies of a lathe, are used to po-sition work, ordinarily cylindrical in form,for machining equally spaced grooves orsurfaces across the periphery of the work.Milling splines on a shaft, as in Fig. 13, andmaking a gear, as in Fig. 18, are good ex-amples. The method of indexing or posi-tioning the work varies with the type of centers used. With the centers shown inFig. 12, this is accomplished by rotating agear fastened to the spindle of the head-stock indexing center. A sliding pin, whichengages the teeth of the gear, locks it inposition. The lockpin support bracket isadjustable for various gear diameters, thusmaking accurate indexing merely a matterof selecting a gear on which the numberof teeth is divisible by the number of spac-ings required on the work. The tailstock indexing center has a hand wheel for ad- justing its center longitudinally.Angular indexing is accomplished bymounting a headstock indexing center,equipped with a chuck to hold the work,on a rotary indexing table. Fig. 10 showsthis type of setup being used. Here the ro-tary table provides the angular adjust-ment and the indexing center permits ac-curate spacing to produce the teeth of anangular cutter.On a production basis, teeth or flutes aremilled with special-formed cutters. How-ever, as an ample supply of these cuttterswould be expensive, an assortment of standard cutters is, in most cases, sufficientfor small shops. Gear cutting requires aformed milling cutter. Fig. 14 shows whatis known as an involute spur-gear cutter.
72

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