, and Jonas in The Giver, among other of our texts.
the text within a text. Myth is often used as an intertext in children's and young adult literature. Thesedo not have to be concrete myth sources, but can consist of mythical thinking, manifested in a myth-likeorganization of time-space relations, or the use of narrative components of myths. See Susan Cooper's The Dark is Rising and Virginia Hamilton's works in general.
One needs to distinguish between three kinds of irony.
, found only in dramaticnarratives, is not a figure but a kind of strategy; it established some important disparity betwen what the audienceknows and what one or more characters in the narrative know. The classic example here is Oedipus in OedipusRex. It raises the question about the disparity between appearance and reality.
, is also a strategy, but between a person's real and assumed character. Swift uses it in Tale of the Tub, but for Socrates, it is anargumentative strategy.
is a figure; its essence is a disparity between what is said, and what isintended, or really thought. The essence of verbal irony is ambiguity. When one is ironic about a subject, onerefuses to assent to the usual view of it, and at the same time one does not flatly condemn the usual view. We donot know, exactly, where the ironist stands.
a term for a disparate group of people linked together without their knowledge. Your family and friendswould not be part of your
. You wouldn't choose its membership, and you may never know who is in it or what its purpose is. (see Paul Fkeischman's Whirligig)
formed from the ancient Greek words kainos, meaning "new," and typos, meaning "form" or "imprint." "Kenotype," then, is literally a "new form," and in the system of culturological concepts it shouldstand beside "archetype," to which it offers a specific contrastive meaning. An example of a kenotype is thesubway (see the link to the archetype of the underworld?), the bicycle or the computer or the television. Parrot inthe Oven has many similies that use kenotypes are part of the comparison.
this is when you understate an idea in order to convey the opposite idea. This is normally done throughthe use of a negative negative before one of the words in order to express a strong affirmative. This style isevident in Karen Hess's Out of the Dust.
Magic is referred to in The Secret Garden as a natural part of life's growth, that energy which cannot betouched or seen. In Harry Potter books, magic becomes an imaginative tool by which he and others confront thedark powers, magic is sometimes not understood. Magic is another kind of illusion. Magic as a continuum of imagination and infinite possibility is also used in C. S. Lewis's Narnia series.
Fiction that maintains a discourse appropriate to an objective and realistic narrative, whilerecounting fantastic or supernatural events alongside commonplace happenings. Magic realism provides much of the power in a number of South American writers, notably Gabriel Garcia Marquez (One Hundred Years of Solitude, 1967), but the technique has been used by Milan Kundera, Salman Rushdie, Robert Kroetsch, Jack Hodgins and Peter Carey, among others.
Meontic and Mimetic Modes
: Art is involved with "experienced reality. --or to adopt Auerbach's rubric, wththe 'representation of reality'--the way it is involved idivded into two contrasted relationships. In the first, articimitates what is there in reality; in the second, it imitates what is not there. [. . .] ( Thomas McFarland,