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Basic Principles of Ship Propulsion

Basic Principles of Ship Propulsion

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Published by mustafa benzer

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Published by: mustafa benzer on Jan 31, 2010
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09/04/2011

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Contents:
Basic Principles of Ship Propulsion
Page
Introduction
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Scope of this Paper
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Chapter 1
Ship Definitions and Hull Resistance
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Ship types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4A ship’s load lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Indication of a ship’s size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Description of hull forms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Ship’s resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Chapter 2 
Propeller Propulsion
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Propeller types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Flow conditions around the propeller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Efficiencies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .· · · ·11Propeller dimensions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .· · · ·13Operating conditions of a propeller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Chapter 3 
Engine Layout and Load Diagrams
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20Power functions and logarithmic scales. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20Propulsion and engine running points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20Engine layout diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22Load diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22Use of layout and load diagrams examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . .25Influence on engine running ofdifferent types of ship resistance summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Closing Remarks
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
References
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
 
Introduction
For the purpose of this paper, the term“ship” is used to denote a vehicle em-ployed to transport goods and personsfrom one point to another over water.Ship propulsion normally occurs withthehelpofapropeller,whichisthetermmostwidelyusedinEnglish,although the word “screw” is some-times seen, inter alia in combinationssuchasa“twin-screw”propulsionplant.Today, the primary source of propellerpoweristhedieselengine,andthepowerrequirementandrateofrevolutionverymuch depend on the ship’s hull formand the propeller design. Therefore, inorder to arrive at a solution that is asoptimal as possible, some generalknowledge is essential as to the princi-pal ship and diesel engine parametersthat influence the propulsion system.This paper will, in particular, attempt toexplain some of the most elementaryterms used regarding ship types,ship’s dimensions and hull forms andclarify some of the parameters pertain-ing to hull resistance, propeller condi-tions and the diesel engine’s loaddiagram.On the other hand, it is considered be-yond the scope of this publication togive an explanation of how propulsioncalculations as such are carried out, asthe calculation procedure is extremelycomplex. The reader is referred to thespecialised literature on this subject, forexample as stated in “References”.
Scope of this Paper
Thispaperisdividedintothreechapterswhich,inprinciple,maybeconsideredasthreeseparatepapersbutwhichalso,withadvantage,maybereadincloseconnectiontoeachother.Therefore,someimportantinformationmentionedinonechaptermaywellappearinanotherchapter,too.Chapter 1, describes the most elemen-tary terms used to define ship sizesand hull forms such as, for example,the ship’s displacement, deadweight,design draught, length between per-pendiculars, block coefficient, etc.Other ship terms described include theeffective towing resistance, consistingof frictional, residual and air resistance,and the influence of these resistancesin service.Chapter 2, deals with ship propulsionand the flow conditions around the pro-peller(s). In this connection, the wakefraction coefficient and thrust deduc-tion coefficient, etc. are mentioned.The total power needed for the propel-leris found based on the above effec-tive towing resistance and variouspropeller and hull dependent efficien-cies which are also described. A sum-mary of the propulsion theory is shownin Fig. 6.The operating conditions of a propelleraccording to the propeller law valid forapropellerwithfixedpitcharedescribedforfreesailingincalmweather,andfollowed up by the relative heavy/lightrunning conditions which apply whentheshipissailingandsubjecttodifferenttypes of extra resistance, like fouling,heavy sea against, etc.Chapter 3, elucidates the importanceof choosing the correct specified MCRandoptimisingpointofthemainengine,and thereby the engine’s load diagraminconsiderationtothepropeller’sdesignpoint.Theconstructionoftherelevantload diagram lines is described in detailby means of several examples. Fig. 24shows, for a ship with fixed pitch pro-peller, by means of a load diagram, theimportant influence of different types ofship resistance on the engine’s contin-uous service rating.3
Basic Principles of Ship Propulsion
 
Ship Definitions and HullResistance
Ship types
Depending on the nature of their cargo,and sometimes also the way the cargoisloaded/unloaded,shipscanbedividedinto different categories, classes, andtypes, some of which are mentioned inTable 1.The three largest categories of shipsare container ships, bulk carriers (forbulk goods such as grain, coal, ores,etc.) and tankers, which again can bedivided into more precisely definedclasses and types. Thus, tankers canbe divided into oil tankers, gas tankersand chemical tankers, but there arealso combinations, e.g. oil/chemicaltankers.Table 1 provides only a rough outline.In reality there are many other combi-nations, such as “Multi-purpose bulkcontainer carriers”, to mention just oneexample.
A ship’s load lines
Painted halfway along the ship’s sideis the “Plimsoll Mark”, see Fig. 1. Thelines and letters of the Plimsoll Mark,which conform to the freeboard ruleslaid down by the IMO (InternationalMaritime Organisation) and local au-thorities, indicate the depth to whichthe vessel may be safely loaded (thedepth varies according to the seasonand the salinity of the water).There are, e.g.load lines for sailing infreshwater and seawater, respectively,with further divisions for tropical condi-tions and summer and winter sailing.Accordingtotheinternationalfreeboardrules, the summer freeboard draughtfor seawater is equal to the “Scantlingdraught”, which is the term applied tothe ship’s draught when dimensioningthe hull.The winter freeboard draught is lessthan that valid for summer because ofthe risk of bad weather whereas, on theother hand, the freeboard draught fortropical seas is somewhat higher thanthe summer freeboard draught.4
CategoryClassTypeTankerOil tankerGas tankerChemical tankerOBOCrude (oil) CarrierVery Large Crude CarrierUltra Large Crude CarrierProduct TankerLiquefied Natural Gas carrierLiquefied Petroleum Gas carrierOil/Bulk/Ore carrierCCVLCCULCCLNGLPGOBOBulk carrierBulk carrierContainer shipContainer shipContainer carrierRoll On-Roll OffRo-RoGeneral cargo shipGeneral cargoCoasterReeferReeferRefigerated cargo vesselPassenger shipFerryCruise vessel
Table 1: Examples of ship types 
T TropicalS SummerW WinterWNA Winter - the North AtlanticD LD: Freeboard draughtSeawaterFreshwaterDanish load markTFF
D
Freeboard deck
Fig. 1: Load lines – freeboard draught 

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