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VOLTAGE REGULATOR AND PARALLEL OPERATION

VOLTAGE REGULATOR AND PARALLEL OPERATION

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Published by saulcastano6556
Generator sets are operated in parallel to improve fuel economy and reliability of the
power supply. Economy is improved with multiple paralleled generators by selecting only
sufficient generators to carry the load demand at any given time. By operating each generator
near its full capacity, fuel is utilized efficiently.
Generator sets are operated in parallel to improve fuel economy and reliability of the
power supply. Economy is improved with multiple paralleled generators by selecting only
sufficient generators to carry the load demand at any given time. By operating each generator
near its full capacity, fuel is utilized efficiently.

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Published by: saulcastano6556 on Feb 01, 2010
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VOLTAGE REGULATOR AND PARALLEL OPERATION
Generator sets are operated in parallel to improve fuel economy and reliability of thepower supply. Economy is improved with multiple paralleled generators by selecting onlysufficient generators to carry the load demand at any given time. By operating each gen-erator near its full capacity, fuel is utilized efficiently.Power system reliability is improved by availability of generators not in use as backup forunits on line. In addition, protective systems can be designed to detect a faulty elementand isolate it from the healthy part while maintaining power to the remaining system. Withmultiple generators carrying the load, a generator that develops a problem can be shutdown, allowing the remaining generators to carry the load.Because of advantages of parallel operation, multiple generator installation has becomecommon in applications for standby and prime power, portable and stationary power,commercial and military power; and they continue to grow.Operating generators in parallel required attention to the two control systems of the gen-erator set - the voltage regulator and the speed governor. This discussion is limited to thecontrol of the voltage regulator.
PARALLEL OPERATION AND THE VOLTAGE REGULATOR
An example to illustrate the effect of the voltage regulator on the generator system can beseen using two batteries and a load. In Figure 1, two batteries with voltages
exactly 
equal(open circuit) could divide load equally, with each battery pulling its share. If the two volt-ages are not exactly equal, the load will not be shared equally, and the benefit of twobatteries will be lost.Figure 1: Paralleled Batteries - Equal VoltageFurther, the load division is very sensitive to voltage unbalance. In Figure 2, the battery withan output voltage of 102 (B2) will determine the load voltage, and the load sees a propor-tionally higher current. Battery B1 is being charged by B2 at a 5 ampere rate because itsterminal voltage is lower. This charging current is obviously not proportional to the voltagelevel and results in a load current on B2 in excess of 6 Amperes.
 
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Figure 2: Paralleled Batteries - Unequal VoltageIn Figure 3, B1 is higher in voltage than B2 by 2 volts, causing B1 to supply the load andcharge B2 for a total load current of 6 Amperes.Figure 3: Paralleled Batteries - Unequal VoltagePlease note that the voltage referred to in the diagrams is the open-circuit voltage. As soonas the batteries are paralleled, the voltage at the terminals of the batteries becomesidentical.Two generators operating in parallel to supply a common load operate in a similar manner.If voltage (open-circuit) is exactly the same on both generators, they will divide the loadequally between them. See Figure 4. Any small difference between generator voltages willresult in unbalanced load division (Figure 5) or, in the extreme, circulating current (Figure 6).Figure 4: Paralleled Generators -Figure 5: Paralleled Generators -Balanced VoltageVoltage Unbalanced
 
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Figure 6: Paralleled Generators - Voltage UnbalancedIn practice, the precise matching of voltages is not possible. Some means must be pro-vided to make load sharing between paralleled generators simple to control.Because circulating current or load unbalance described above is the result of voltagemismatch, you might look to the voltage regulator for some help. The regulator can providethis help using paralleling compensation circuits called reactive droop compensation orreactive crosscurrent compensation. Both types will be described in detail in later papers.The principle of operation of the reactive droop circuit, which is the simplest and mostcommonly used circuit, can be described by the curve in Figure 7.Figure 7: Reactive Droop CurvesUsing a regulator designed to maintain precise voltage regulation, a circuit is added thataccepts a current signal from the generator’s output. This current signal is combined withthe generator’s sensing voltage signal to develop a vector summed voltage proportional toreactive load.For example, if voltage decreases from 480 volts down to 458 voltage from no load to ratedreactive (kvar) load, the voltage droop is -4.3% droop. If two generators are operated inparallel, with their droop curves set the same and their voltage setpoints adjusted to pro-portionally share the reactive load, any unbalance that would increase the load on onemachine and decrease the load on the other would cause the droop circuits to change thevoltage setpoints in a direction to bring the load back into balance. With droop compensa-tion, the bus voltage will droop with changing reactive load.

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