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Configuring DHCP

Configuring DHCP

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Published by: grubber9 on Feb 01, 2010
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Cisco IOS IP Configuration Guide
Configuring DHCP
ThischapterdescribeshowtoconfigureDynamicHostConfigurationProtocol(DHCP).Foracompletedescription of the DHCP commands listed in this chapter, refer to the “DHCP Commands” chapter of the
Cisco IOS IP Command Reference, Volume 1 of 3: Addressing and Services
publication. To locatedocumentationofothercommandsthatappearinthischapter,usethecommandreferencemasterindex,or search online.As explained in RFC2131,
 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
, DHCP provides configurationparameterstoInternethosts.DHCPconsistsoftwocomponents:aprotocolfordeliveringhost-specificconfiguration parameters from a DHCP Server to a host and a mechanism for allocating network addressestohosts.DHCPisbuiltonaclient/servermodel,wheredesignatedDHCPServerhostsallocatenetwork addresses and deliver configuration parameters to dynamically configured hosts.DHCP supports three mechanisms for IP address allocation:
Automatic allocation—DHCP assigns a permanent IP address to a client.
Dynamic allocation—DHCP assigns an IP address to a client for a limited period of time (or untilthe client explicitly relinquishes the address).
Manualallocation—ThenetworkadministratorassignsanIPaddresstoaclientandDHCPisusedsimply to convey the assigned address to the client.TheformatofDHCPmessagesisbasedontheformatofBootstrapProtocol(BOOTP)messages,whichensures support for BOOTP relay agent functionality and interoperability between BOOTP clients andDHCPServers.BOOTPrelayagentseliminatetheneedfordeployingaDHCPServeroneachphysicalnetwork segment. BOOTP is explained in RFC951,
 Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)
, and RFC1542,
Clarifications and Extensions for the Bootstrap Protocol
.To identify the hardware platform or software image information associated with a feature, use theFeature Navigator on Cisco.com to search for information about the feature or refer to the softwarerelease notes for a specific release. For more information, see the “Identifying Supported Platforms”section in the “Using Cisco IOS Software” chapter in this book.
DHCP Server Overview
TheCiscoIOSDHCPServerfeatureisafullDHCPServerimplementationthatassignsandmanagesIPaddressesfromspecifiedaddresspoolswithintheroutertoDHCPclients.IftheCiscoIOSDHCPServercannot satisfy a DHCP request from its own database, it can forward the request to one or moresecondary DHCP Servers defined by the network administrator.
Configuring DHCPDHCP Server Overview
Cisco IOS IP Configuration Guide
Figure15shows the basic steps that occur when a DHCP client requests an IP address from a DHCPServer.Theclient,HostA,sendsaDHCPDISCOVERbroadcastmessagetolocateaCiscoIOSDHCPServer.ADHCPServeroffersconfigurationparameters(suchasanIPaddress,aMACaddress,adomainname, and a lease for the IP address) to the client in a DHCPOFFER unicast message.
Figure15DHCP Request for an IP Address from a DHCP Server 
ADHCPclientmayreceiveoffersfrommultipleDHCPServersandcanacceptanyoneoftheoffers;however,theclientusuallyacceptsthefirstofferitreceives.Additionally,theofferfromtheDHCPServerisnotaguaranteethattheIPaddresswillbeallocatedtotheclient;however,theserverusuallyreserves the address until the client has had a chance to formally request the address.TheclientreturnsaformalrequestfortheofferedIPaddresstotheDHCPServerinaDHCPREQUESTbroadcast message. The DHCP Server confirms that the IP address has been allocated to the client byreturning a DHCPACK unicast message to the client.
The formal request for the offered IP address (the DHCPREQUEST message) that is sent by theclient is broadcast so that all other DHCP Servers that received the DHCPDISCOVER broadcastmessage from the client can reclaim the IP addresses that they offered to the client.IftheconfigurationparameterssenttotheclientintheDHCPOFFERunicastmessagebytheDHCPServer are invalid (a misconfiguration error exists), the client returns a DHCPDECLINE broadcastmessage to the DHCP Server.The DHCP Server will send to the client a DHCPNAK denial broadcast message, which means theoffered configuration parameters have not been assigned, if an error has occurred during thenegotiationoftheparametersortheclienthasbeenslowinrespondingtotheDHCPOFFERmessage(the DHCP Server assigned the parameters to another client) of the DHCP Server.The CiscoIOS DHCP Server feature offers the following benefits:
Reduced Internet access costsUsing automatic IP address assignment at each remote site substantially reduces Internet accesscosts. Static IP addresses are considerably more expensive to purchase than are automaticallyallocated IP addresses.
Reduced client configuration tasks and cost
Because DHCP is easy to configure, it minimizes operational overhead and costs associated withdevice configuration tasks and eases deployment by nontechnical users.
Centralized managementBecausetheDHCPServermaintainsconfigurationsforseveralsubnets,anadministratoronlyneedsto update a single, central server when configuration parameters change.
Host ADHCPACK (unicast)DHCPREQUEST (broadcast)DHCPOFFER (unicast)DHCPDISCOVER (broadcast)Cisco IOSDHCP server
        3        2        3        6        9
Configuring DHCPDHCP Client Overview
Cisco IOS IP Configuration Guide
Before you configure the CiscoIOS DHCP Server feature, complete the following tasks:
IdentifyanexternalFileTransportProtocol(FTP),TrivialFileTransferProtocol(TFTP),orremotecopy protocol (rcp) server that you will use to store the DHCP bindings database.
IdentifytheIPaddressesthatyouwillenabletheDHCPServertoassign,andtheIPaddressesthatyou will exclude.
Identify DHCP options for devices where necessary, including the following:
Default boot image name
Default routers
Domain Name System (DNS) servers
NetBIOS name server
Decide on a NetBIOS node type (b, p, m, or h).
Decide on a DNS domain name.
DHCP Client Overview
TheCiscoIOSDHCPclientnowenablesyoutoobtainanIPaddressfromaDHCPServerdynamicallyusingtheDHCPprotocolasspecifiedinRFC2131.InCiscoIOSRelease12.2,onlyEthernetinterfacesaresupported;workisinprogresstosupportallinterfacetypes.TheCiscoIOSDHCPclientoffersthefollowing benefits:
Reduces time to configure and deploy
Reduces the number of configuration errors
Enables customers to centrally control the IP address assigned to a CiscoIOS router
DHCP Relay Agent Overview
ADHCPrelayagentisanyhostthatforwardsDHCPpacketsbetweenclientsandservers.Relayagentsare used to forward requests and replies between clients and servers when they are not on the samephysical subnet. Relay agent forwarding is distinct from the normal forwarding of an IP router, whereIP datagrams are switched between networks somewhat transparently. Relay agents receive DHCPmessages and then generate a new DHCP message to send out on another interface.The Cisco IOS DHCP relay agent supports the use of unnumbered interfaces. The DHCP relay agentautomatically adds a static host route specifying the unnumbered interface as the outbound interface.

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