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AP Psychology Final Study Guide

AP Psychology Final Study Guide

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Published by dawpa2000
AP Psychology Final Study Guide
AP Psychology Final Study Guide.docx

12th Grade
Period 1 (AP Physchology)
AP Psychology Final Exam Review
AP Psychology Final Study Guide
AP Psychology Final Study Guide.docx

12th Grade
Period 1 (AP Physchology)
AP Psychology Final Exam Review

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Published by: dawpa2000 on Feb 01, 2010
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Psychology – Eighth Edition
by David G. Myers
AP Psychology Final Study GuideHistory and Statistics
1)
Validity
– the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.(See also
content validity 
and
 predictive validity 
.) (p. 448)2)
Reliability
– the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by theconsistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of thetest, or on retesting. (p. 448)3)
Standardization
– defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of apretested standardization group. (p. 446)
temporary psychology
– According to contemporary psychologists, the
unconscious
is atype of information processing of which we are unaware. (p. 597)5)
Hindsight bias
– the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one wouldhave foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.) (p.20)6)
Standard deviation
– a computed measure of how much scores varyaround the mean score. (p. 42)7)
Mean
– the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores andthen dividing by the number of scores. (p. 41)8)
Mode
– the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution. (p. 41)9)
Median
– the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half arebelow it. (p. 41)10)
Hypothesis
– a testable prediction, often implied by a theory. (p. 25)
perational definition
– a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define researchvariables. For example,
human intelligence
may be operationally defined aswhat an intelligence test measures. (p. 25)12)Wilhelm Wundt – Late 1800s; Structuralism; introspection – lookinginward to explain
Random assignment
– assigning participants to experimental and control conditions bychance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned tothe different groups. (p. 37)14)
Overconfidence
– the tendency to be more confident than correct—to overestimate theaccuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments. (p. 403)
ross-sectional research
– a study in which people of different ages are compared with oneanother. (p. 183)16)Correlational research –17)Experimental method –18)Measures of central tendencies atin for “I shall please”]
effect
– experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effecton behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition,which is assumed to be an active agent. (p. 37))
Illusory correlation
– the perception of a relationship where none exists. (p. 33)
Neuroscience
21)Neurobiological –22)Brain imaging 28591954Page 1 of 11
 
Psychology – Eighth Edition
by David G. Myers23)
Blind spot
– the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a “blind” spotbecause no receptor cells are located there. (p. 207)
l
[seh-REE-bruhl]
cortex
– the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers thecerebral hemispheres; the body’s ultimate control and information¬-processing center. (p. 74)-NAHM-ik]
Nervous System
– the part of the peripheral nervous system, which controls theglands, and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Itssympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms. (p. 62)26)
Limbic system
– a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of thebrainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fearand aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes thehippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus. (p. 72))
Reticular formation
– nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role incontrolling arousal. (p. 71)28)Olfactory system –
Psychopharmacology
– the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior. (p. 711)30)Neural structure –1)
Lesion
[LEE-zhuhn] – tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentallycaused destruction of brain tissue. (p. 68)
l Nervous System (CNS)
– the brain and spinal cord. (p. 61)33)
Vestibular sense
– the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance. (p. 234)34)Bipolar cells 35)
Dendrite
– the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages andconduct impulses toward the cell body. (p. 55))
Neurotransmitters
– chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps betweenneurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travelacross the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron,thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse. (p.57)37)
Agonist
– an agonist molecule may be similar enough to the neurotransmitter tomimic its effects. (p. 59)38)
Antagonist
– a drug molecule that inhibits a neurotransmitter’s release. (p. 59)39)
Teratogens
– agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo orfetus during prenatal development and cause harm. (p. 141)40)
Motor neurons
– neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervoussystem to the muscles and glands. (p. 62)41)
Sensory neurons
– neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors tothe central nervous system. (p. 62)42)Brain structures and functions –
mus
[hi-po-THAL-uh-muss] – a neural structure lying below (
hypo
) the thalamus; it directsseveral maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helpsgovern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked toemotion. (p. 73)
m
[KOR-pus kah-LOW-sum] – the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brainhemispheres and carrying messages between them. (p. 84)28591954Page 2 of 11
 
Psychology – Eighth Edition
by David G. Myers45)
Split brain
– a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated bycutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) betweenthem. (p. 84)
Nature and NurtureNature-nurture issue
– the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions thatgenes and experience make to the development of psychological traits andbehaviors. (p. 9)
olutionary perspective
– the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principlesof natural selection. (p. 107)48)
Gender identity
– one’s sense of being male or female. (p. 132)49)
Schema
– a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. (p.147)
ender schema theory
– the theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what itmeans to be male and female and that they adjust their behavioraccordingly. (p. 132)51)Twin studies
Development
52)Jean Piaget – Theory of cognitive development53)Parenting styles –54)
Attachment
– an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by theirseeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation. (p.155)55)
Imprinting
– the process by which certain animals form attachments during a criticalperiod very early in life. (p. 156)56)
Habituation
– decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gainfamiliarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanesand they look away sooner. (p. 143)57)
Assimilation
– interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas.(p. 148)58)
Accommodation
– adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate newinformation. (p. 148)– the process by which the eye’s lens changes shape to focus near orfar objects on the retina. (p. 205)59)Harry & Margaret Harlow 60)
Visual cliff 
– a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and younganimals. (p. 245)Lawrence Kohlberg – Stages of development
Object permanence
– the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.(p. 149)63)Erik Erikson 64)Mary Ainsworth – Attachment research65)
Teratogens
[see 39]
Sensation and Perception
28591954Page 3 of 11

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