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A Typology of Anarchy

A Typology of Anarchy

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Published by: virtualjustino on Feb 02, 2010
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03/27/2014

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A Rothbardian critique of Cuzán and Ostrowski and a Typology of Anarchy
(unpublished)Michael WiebeIndependent Scholar 9-857 Waverley Street, Winnipeg, MB, Canada, R3M 3Y61-204-487-7488maswiebe@gmail.com Abstract:With his 1979 article "Do we really ever get out of anarchy?" Alfred Cuzán provides uswith a wonderful insight: "Anarchy, like matter, never disappears - it only changes form."Cuzán argues that anarchy, defined as the absence of a third party territorial monopolistof ultimate jurisdiction, is omnipresent: Regardless of what political system we liveunder, there will always be anarchic relationships, namely those between the actualmembers of government. James Ostrowski, in his article "The Myth of DemocraticPeace", extends this argument to show that there are four more anarchic relationships incurrent society. The omnipresence of anarchy is undeniable. However, there are problemswith this analysis. It is not compatible with the root word definition of anarchy as "norulers", nor does it incorporate such governmental (non-anarchic) relationships astaxation and regulation. Happily, the analysis can be repaired by applying MurrayRothbard's "typology of intervention" and creating a corresponding "typology of anarchy".
 
 1
Introduction
With his 1979 article "Do we really ever get out of anarchy?" Alfred Cuzán provides uswith a wonderful insight: "Anarchy, like matter, never disappears - it only changes form."Cuzán argues that anarchy, defined as the absence of a third party territorial monopolistof ultimate jurisdiction, is omnipresent: Regardless of what political system we liveunder, there will always be anarchic relationships, namely those between the actualmembers of government. James Ostrowski, in his article "The Myth of DemocraticPeace", extends this argument to show that there are four more anarchic relationships incurrent society: (a) between government and the individual; (b) between differentgovernments; (c) between governments and citizens of different countries; (d) betweencitizens of different countries. All four relationships indicate a state of anarchy. However,there are problems with this analysis. It is not compatible with the root word definition of anarchy as "no rulers", nor does it incorporate such governmental (non-anarchic)relationships as taxation and regulation. Happily, the analysis can be repaired by applyingMurray Rothbard's "typology of intervention" and creating a corresponding "typology of anarchy".
Cuzán, Ostrowski, and omnipresent anarchy
 Cuzán defines anarchy as "a social order without Government... a third party with thecoercive powers to enforce its judgments and punish detractors". He thus follows thestandard definition of government as a territorial monopolist of ultimate jurisdiction(henceforth TMUJ). He goes on to show how governments "do not get us out of anarchyat all. They simply replace one form of anarchy by another". (Cuzán 1979, p. 1-2)"Whenever earthly "governments" are established or exist, anarchy is officially prohibited for all members of society... They can no longer relate to each other ontheir terms... Rather, all members of society must accept an external "third party"- a government - into their relationships". Thus, individuals are no longer freehuman beings, but governed citizens. They "must accept the rulers of governmentin [their] relations with others". (Cuzán 1979, p.2)
 
 2 Next, Cuzán explains how the actual members of government live in anarchy vis-à-viseach other:"However, such a "third party" arrangement for society is non-existent amongthose who exercise the power of government themselves. In other words, there isno "third party" to make and enforce judgments among the individuals who makeup the third party itself. The rulers still remain in a state of anarchy
vis-à-vis
eachother... Anarchy still exists." (Cuzán 1979, p.2)So, "society is
always
in anarchy. A government only abolishes anarchy among what arecalled "subjects", or "citizens", but among those who rule, anarchy prevails." (Cuzán1979, p.3)Cuzán distinguishes between market anarchy and political anarchy. In the former (Fig. 1),"all members of society relate to each other in strictly bilateral relations without third party intervention." (Cuzán 1979, p.3-4) This would be the market anarchist society of Murray Rothbard, where private, competitive, and voluntary courts and police replace themonopolistic, coercive government. In the latter (Fig. 2), however, "[a]ll relations arelegally "triangular" [top compartment], in that all members of society are forced to acceptthe rule of government in their transactions." Of course, "inside the "government" itself [bottom compartment], relations among the rulers remain in anarchy." (Cuzán 1979, p.4)This is the traditional government we have today.Ostrowski (2005) builds on Cuzán's insight. With the following diagrams, he shows thatthere are four more anarchic relationships - with no ruling third party - in current society(Fig. 3). First, the citizen is in a state of anarchy vis-à-vis the government. There is no

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