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GPS Seminar Synopsis

GPS Seminar Synopsis

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Published by Ankur Paul

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Ankur Paul on Feb 02, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Global Positioning System
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a U.S. space-based globalnavigation satellite system. It provides reliable positioning, navigation, and timingservices to worldwide users on a continuous basis in all weather, day and night,anywhere on or near the Earth.GPS is made up of three segments:
Space segment,
Control segment and 
User segment.
The Space Segment 
is composed of 24 to 32 satellites in MediumEarth Orbit and also includes the boosters required to launch them intoorbit.
The Control Segmen
iscomposed of a Master ControlStation, an Alternate MasteControl Station, and a host of dedicated and shared Ground  Antennas and Monitor Stations.
The User Segmen
iscomposed of hundreds othousands of U.S. and allied military users of the secureGPS Precise Positioning Serviceand tens of millions of civil,commercial and scientific usersof the Standard PositioningService.GPS satellites broadcast signalsfrom space that GPS receivers use to provide three-dimensional location(latitude, longitude, and altitude) plus precise time.GPS is a space-based radio-positioning system nominally consisting of aminimum of 24-satellite constellation that provides navigation and timinginformation to military and civilian users worldwide. GPS satellites, in one of six medium earth orbits, circle the earth every 12 hours emitting continuousnavigation signals on two different L-band frequencies. In addition to thesatellites, the system consists of aworldwide satellite control network and GPS receiver units that acquire thesatellite's signals and translate them into precise position and timing information.The Global Positioning System (GPS) is managed for the Government of theUnited States by the U.S. Air Force (USAF), the system operator. GPS wasoriginally developed as a military force enhancement system and will continue to
Ankur Paul, EEE VI sem., 0700113009Page 1
Artist's conception of GPSBlock II-F satellite in orbit
Global Positioning System
 play this role. However, GPS has also demonstrated a significant potential tobenefit the civil community in an increasingly large variety of applications. In aneffort to make this beneficial service available to the greatest number of userswhile ensuring that the national security interests of the United States areobserved, two GPS services are provided. The Precise Positioning Service (PPS) isavailable primarily to the military of the United States and its allies for users properly equipped with PPS receivers. The Standard Positioning Service (SPS) isde signed to provide a less accurate positioning capability than PPS for civil and all other users throughout the world.GPS has become a widely used aid to navigation worldwide, and a usefultool for map-making, land surveying, commerce, scientific uses, tracking and surveillance, and hobbies such as geo-caching and way-marking. Also, the precise time reference is used in many applications including the scientific study of earthquakes and as a time synchronization source for cellular networ protocols.GPS has become a mainstay of transportation systems worldwide, providingnavigation for aviation, ground, and maritime operations. Disaster relief and emergency services depend upon GPS for location and timing capabilities in their life-saving missions. The accurate timing that GPS provides facilitates everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of  power grids. Farmers, surveyors, geologists and countless others perform their work more efficiently, safely, economically, and accurately using the free and open GPS signals.GPS provides the following:· 24-hour, worldwide service.· Highly accurate, three-dimensional location information.· Precision velocity and timing services.· Accessibility to an unlimited number of global military, civilian, and commercialusers
Ankur Paul, EEE VI sem., 0700113009Page 2
Global Positioning System
The design of GPS is based partly on similar ground-based radio navigationsystems, such as LORAN and the Decca Navigator developed in the early 
,and used during World War II. Additional inspiration for the GPS came when theSoviet Union launched the first man-made satellite, Sputnik in
. A team of U.S. scientists led by Dr. Richard B. Kershner were monitoring Sputnik's radiotransmissions. They discovered that, because of the Doppler Effect, thefrequency of the signal being transmitted by Sputnik was higher as the satelliteapproached, and lower as it continued away from them. They realized that sincethey knew their exact location on the globe, they could pinpoint where thesatellite was along its orbit by measuring the Doppler distortion.The first satellite navigation system, Transit, used by the United StatesNavy, was first successfully tested in
. It used a constellation of fivesatellites and could provide a navigational fix approximately once per hour.In
, the U.S. Navy developed the Timation satellite which proved theability to place accurate clocks in space, a technology that GPS relies upon. In the
, the ground-based Omega Navigation System, based on phasecomparison of signal transmissionfrom pairs of stations, became thefirst worldwide radio navigationsystem.Friedwardt Winterberg proposed a test of General Relativity usingaccurate atomic clocks placed in orbit in artificial satellites. To achieveaccuracy requirements, GPS uses principles of general relativity tocorrect the satellites' atomic clocks. After Korean Air Lines Flight 007was shot down in
after straying into the USSR's prohibited airspace,
President Ronald Reagan
issued a directive making GPS freely available for civilian use, once it was sufficiently developed, as a common good. The first satellite was launched in
, and the 24th and last satellite was launched in
.Initially, the highest quality signal was reserved for military use, and thesignal available for civilian use intentionally degraded ("Selective Availability",SA). Selective Availability was ended in
, improving the precision of civilianGPS from about 100m to about 20m.
In 1972, the U.S. Air Force Central Inertial Guidance Test Facility (Holloman AFB), conducted developmental flight tests of two prototype GPS receiversover White Sands Missile Range, using ground-based pseudo-satellites.
In 1978, the first experimental Block-I GPS satellite was launched.
Ankur Paul, EEE VI sem., 0700113009Page 3 Tragedy of KAL007 in Sept, 1983. 269

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