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Castle Square Swansea

Castle Square Swansea

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The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust, Projects Division (GGAT Projects) have undertaken an assessment of the archaeological effects of a proposed development at Castle Square, Swansea. The assessment reviewed information held by the regional Historic Environment Record (HER) and the National Monuments Record (NMR), as well as cartographic and documentary sources. Aerial photographs were examined and a site visit conducted.

A total of 38 sites of archaeological interest where identified within the study area, including a total of eleven new sites that have been identified through map regression. The discovery of the remains of a medieval barbican tower or bridge abutment in close proximity to 1-4 Castle Street, at a shallow depth, indicates the high potential for encountering significant medieval deposits and structures. However, since the nature of the archaeological resource at 1-4 Castle Street is not fully understood a programme of archaeological investigation consisting of trial trenching should be implemented before any ground works take place on the site.
The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust, Projects Division (GGAT Projects) have undertaken an assessment of the archaeological effects of a proposed development at Castle Square, Swansea. The assessment reviewed information held by the regional Historic Environment Record (HER) and the National Monuments Record (NMR), as well as cartographic and documentary sources. Aerial photographs were examined and a site visit conducted.

A total of 38 sites of archaeological interest where identified within the study area, including a total of eleven new sites that have been identified through map regression. The discovery of the remains of a medieval barbican tower or bridge abutment in close proximity to 1-4 Castle Street, at a shallow depth, indicates the high potential for encountering significant medieval deposits and structures. However, since the nature of the archaeological resource at 1-4 Castle Street is not fully understood a programme of archaeological investigation consisting of trial trenching should be implemented before any ground works take place on the site.

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd on Feb 02, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/08/2010

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Castle Square, Swansea : archaeological desk-based assessment1
Contents
 
Page
Summary...........................................................................................................................3 Acknowledgements...........................................................................................................3Copyright notice...............................................................................................................4
 
1
 
Introduction....................................................................................................................5
 1.1 Planning history................................................................................................................51.2 Specification and methodology for study.........................................................................51.3 Assessment criteria...........................................................................................................5
2
 
Background.....................................................................................................................8
 2.1 Location and topography..................................................................................................82.2 Geology............................................................................................................................82.3 Walkover survey..............................................................................................................82.4 General historical and archaeological background........................................................112.5 Specific historical and archaeological background........................................................122.6 Review of Documentary, Cartographic and Aerial Resources:.....................................20
3
 
Archaeological Interests..............................................................................................23
 
4
 
Assessment....................................................................................................................25
 4.1 Effect of the development on archaeological sites (Table 2).........................................254.2 Effect of development on newly identified and potential sites (Table 3)......................27
5
 
Mitigation......................................................................................................................28
 5.1 Mitigation of the impact of the development upon known and newly identifiedarchaeological interests...............................................................................................285.2 Mitigation of the impact of the development upon previously identifiedarchaeological deposits...............................................................................................295.3 Mitigation summary.......................................................................................................30
Bibliography.................................................................................................................31
 
Websites........................................................................................................................32
 
Cartographic sources...................................................................................................32
 
Appendix I.....................................................................................................................33
 Map Regression..............................................................................................................33
Appendix II...................................................................................................................40
 Walkover Survey............................................................................................................40
Pictorial evidence..........................................................................................................46
 
Appendix III.................................................................................................................47
 Aerial Photographs with Coverage of the Evaluation Area...........................................47
Appendix IV..................................................................................................................48
 Apportionments relating to the tithe map of 1843 for the Parish of St Mary’s, Swansea48
Appendix V...................................................................................................................49
 Tenant occupations relating to the tithe map of 1875-6 for the Parish of St Mary’s,Swansea from the Trade Registers Directory of Trades (STR/DIR).............................49
Appendix VI..................................................................................................................50
 Tenant occupations relating to the tithe map of 1887 for the Parish of St Mary’s,Swansea from the Trade Registers Directory of Trades (18).........................................50
Appendix VII................................................................................................................51
 Gazetteer of archaeological interests..............................................................................51
 
Castle Square, Swansea : archaeological desk-based assessment2
 
Plates
 
Page
Plate 1: South block of Swansea Castle view to the south east..................................................40Plate 2: North-East Tower (formerly the Debtor’s Prison), the doorway illustrates the rise of theground level, view to the north.......................................................................................40Plate 3: Arcading of south block of the castle, view to the north..............................................41Plate 4: Former site of 1-4 Castle Square situated to the south of the New Castle and CastleLane and to the north of No. 5 Castle Square, view to the east.....................................41Plate 5: Eastern end of Castle Cinema, view to the west...........................................................42Plate 6: Section of probable revetment wall, view to the west..................................................42Plate 7: Northern area of Worcester Place car park, view to the south......................................43Plate 8: Green Dragon Lane with 19th century cobbling, located in the south of the study area,view to the west..............................................................................................................43Plate 9: Castle Lane Buildings view to the south east................................................................44Plate 10: Statue of Sir H Hussey Vivian in the new location of St Mary’s Square, view to thesouth...............................................................................................................................44Plate 11: 40-41 Castle Square, with Castle cinema in the background view to North East.......45Plate 12: Castle Square, showing the New Castle and BT Tower, view to the east..................45Plate 13: ‘The East View of Swansea Castle in the County of Glamorgan’ by S & N Buck, 1741........................................................................................................................................46Plate 14: ‘Swansey in Wales’ by Francis Place
c
1680...............................................................46
Tables
 Table 1: Identified archaeological interests...............................................................................23Table 2: New or potential sites identified by the current study.................................................24Table 3: Effect of the development on known archaeological interests....................................25Table 4: Effect of the development on new or potential sites....................................................27
Figures
 Figure 1: Location of study area (green)......................................................................................9Figure 2: Plan showing study area (green), development area (red), Scheduled AncientMonument Areas (blue) and sites of archaeological interests (red)...............................10Figure 3: 1843 Tithe map of St Mary’s Parish, development area (red), Scheduled AncientMonument Areas (blue).................................................................................................33Figure 4: Local Board of Health map of Swansea 1852, development area (red), ScheduledAncient Monument Areas (blue)....................................................................................34Figure 5: Local Board of Health map of Swansea 1855, development area (red), ScheduledAncient Monument Areas (blue)....................................................................................35Figure 6: 1879 First Edition Ordnance Survey Map, development area (red) Scheduled AncientMonument Areas (blue).................................................................................................36Figure 7: 1899 Second Edition Ordnance Survey Map, development area (red) ScheduledAncient Monument Areas (blue)....................................................................................37Figure 8: 1919 Third Edition Ordnance Survey Map, development area (red), ScheduledAncient Monument Areas (blue)....................................................................................38Figure 9: Areas of archaeological potential and study area (green), development area (red)....39

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