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AP Calculus Section 3-1 Notes KA

# AP Calculus Section 3-1 Notes KA

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AP Calculus Section 3-1 Notes KA
Section_3_1_notes_KA.doc

AP Calculus - Anthony
AP Calculus Section 3-1 Notes KA
Section_3_1_notes_KA.doc

AP Calculus - Anthony

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02/03/2010

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Definition of Extrema
Let be defined on an interval containing c1. () is the MINIMUM of on if ()() for all in .2. () is the MAXIMUM of on if ()() for all in .
f  f c f I f c f x x  f c f I f c f x x
The minimum and maximum of a function on an interval are the
extreme values,
or
extrema
, of the function on the interval. The minimum and maximum of a function on an interval are alsocalled the
absolute minimum
and
absolute maximum
on the interval.
2
()1,is continuous on [-1,2]
f x x f
= +
There exists aminimum at (0,1) and amaximum at (2,5)
2
()1,is continuous on (-1,2)
f x x f
= +
There exists aminimum at (0,1) but nomaximum exists
2
1,0()2,0is not continuous on [-1,2]
x x g x x g
+ ==
There exists no minimum buta maximum at (2,5)
The Extreme Value Theorem:
If is continuous on a closed interval [,], then has both a minimum and a maximum on the interval.
f a b f
Definition of Relative Extrema (Hills and Valleys)
1. If there is an open interval containing on which () is a maximum, then () is calleda relative maximum of .2. If there is an open interval containing on which () is a minimum,
c f c f c f  c f c
then () is calleda relative minimum of .
f c f
The plural of relative maximum is relative maxima, and the plural of relative minimum isrelative minima.

Example 1
a) Find the value of the derivative of
( )
()
23
93
x f x x
=
at
( )
3,2which is the relative maximum b) Find the value of the derivative of
( )
f x x
=
at
( )
0,0which is the relative minimumc) Find the value of the derivative of
( )
sin
f x x
=
at,12
π
  
which is a relative maximum and3,12
π
  
which is a relative minimum.
Definition of Critical Number
Let be defined at . If ()0 or if is undefined at , then is a CRITICALNUMBER of .
f c f c f c c f
=
Theorem 3.2 Relative Extrema Occur Only at Critical Numbers

If has a relative minimum or relative maximum at , then is a critical number of .
f x c c f
=
Guidelines for Finding Extrema on a closed interval
To find the extrema of a continuous function
f
on a closed interval[,],
a b
use the followingsteps:1.Find the critical numbers of in (,),
f a b
2.Evaluate
f
at each critical number in
(,),
a b
3.Evaluate
f
at each endpoint of [,],
a b
4.The least of these values is the minimum. The greatest is the maximum.Example 2 Find the extrema of
( )
[ ]
43
34 on the interval 1,2
f x x x
=
Example 3 Find the extrema of
( )
[ ]
23
23 on the interval 1,3
f x x x
=