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AP Calculus The Concavity of a Function

# AP Calculus The Concavity of a Function

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AP Calculus The Concavity of a Function
THE_CONCAVITY_OF_A_FUNCTION.doc

AP Calculus - Anthony
AP Calculus The Concavity of a Function
THE_CONCAVITY_OF_A_FUNCTION.doc

AP Calculus - Anthony

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07/12/2013

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THE CONCAVITY OF A FUNCTION
Let
f
be differentiable on an open interval I.
The graph of
f
is
concave upward
on I if
f
is increasingon the interval.
The graph of
f
is
concave downward
on I if
f
isdecreasing on the interval.
Concave Up Illustrations: Note how the
slopes
of thetangent lines
increase
from left to right.Concave Down Illustrations: Note how the
slopes
of thetangent lines
decrease
from left to right.
1

TEST FOR CONCAVITY
Let
f
be a function whose second derivative existson an open interval I.1. If
0)(
>
x  f
for all
x
in I, then the graph of
f
is
concave upward
on I2. If
0)(
<
x  f
for all
x
in I, then the graph of
f
is
concave downward
on IAgain … a set of basic guidelines for the amateur:1. Find the
x
values of the points where
0)(
=
x  f
or
)(
x  f
is undefined.2. Set up an
f
number line, marked with 2
nd
derivative critical numbers … and domainrestrictions.3. Test each interval for if it yields a positive or negative
f
value.4. POS
Concave Up NEG:
Concave Down
2

EXAMPLE 1:
Determine the open intervals on which the graph of
12
)3(6)(
+=
x x  f
is concave upward or downward.
12
)3(6)(
+=
x x  f

2222
)3(12)2()3(6)(
+=+=
x x x x x  f

4222242222
)3(]48)3)(12)[(3( )3()2)(3)(2)(12()12()3( )(
++++ =+++ =
x x x x x x x x x  x  f
322
)3()1(36 )(
+=
x x x  f

322
)3()1(36 0
+=
x x

⇒∴
)(
x  f
CNs:
1
±=
x
Test for

)1,(
pos pos pos  f
==+=
322
)3)2(( )1)2((36 )2(
Test for

)1,1(
neg  posneg   f
==+=
322
)30( )10(36 )0(
Test for

),1(
pos pos pos  f
==+=
322
)32( )12(36 )2(
ConcaveUpward:
)1,(
;
),1(
Concave Downward:
)1,1(
EXAMPLE 2:
Determine the open intervals on which the graph of
41)(
22
+=
x x x  f
is concave upward or downward.
3
f
1
positive negative
-1
positive
00
f

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