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AP Calculus Section 4-5 U-Substitution and Change of VariableRatings: (0)|Views: 67|Likes: 1

Published by dawpa2000

AP Calculus Section 4-5 U-Substitution and Change of Variable

Calc Section 4-5 U-substitution and change_of_variable.doc

AP Calculus - Anthony

Calc Section 4-5 U-substitution and change_of_variable.doc

AP Calculus - Anthony

AP Calculus Section 4-5 U-Substitution and Change of Variable

Calc Section 4-5 U-substitution and change_of_variable.doc

AP Calculus - Anthony

Calc Section 4-5 U-substitution and change_of_variable.doc

AP Calculus - Anthony

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/26282232/AP-Calculus-Section-4-5-U-Substitution-and-Change-of-Variable

05/27/2010

text

original

U-SUBSTITUTION

Pattern Recognition:The whole idea revolves around the “undoing” of thechain rule. The fact that the chain rule placesanother term as a multiplier onto an initial derivativemeans that we

need

that additional term to be therein order to “undo” the process.Symbolically:Since

[ ( ( ))] [ ( )] ( ( )) ( ) ( )

d d F g x F u F g x g x F u udx dx

′ ′ ′ ′= = ⋅ = ⋅

We can conclude

( ( )) ( ) ( ) ( ( )) ( )

F g x g x dx F u u dx F g x C F u C

′ ′ ′ ′⋅ = ⋅ = + = +

∫ ∫

The rule in our textbook may look a bit strange, or not saying much, but carefully examine the “If” part.

If ( ), then ( ) and

u g x du g x dx

′= =

( ) ( )

f u du F u C

= +

∫

Let’s examine the following examples on the board.What is the

u

? What is the

du

? After some time,this mechanical process should not always benecessary.

EXAMPLE 1:

2 2

( 1) (2 )

x x dx

+

∫

2

12

u xdu x

= +=

3 2 32 2 2

( 1)( 1) (2 )3 3

u x x x dx u du C C

++ = = + = +

∫ ∫

EXMPLE

2:

5cos5

xdx

∫

EXAMPLE 3:

2 2

( 1)

x x dx

+

∫

EXAMPLE 3B: What you are FORBIDDEN TO DO:

2 2

( 1)

x dx

+

∫

2 2

1( 1) (2 )2

x x dx x

≠ +

∫

CHANGE OF VARIABLES

Sometimes an integral is more manageable with acomplete change in variable. This followingexample is not one in which it is

necessary

to dothis, but simply illustrates the technique in an easyfashion.

EXAMPLE 4:

2 1

x dx

−

∫

OK, we will simply use the following to replace the major portion of the integral.

2 1

u x

= −

But, the way we will now go is to isolate

x

, in order tothen differentiate and get

dx

.

2

2 1

u x

= −

2

1 2

u x

+ =

2

12

u x

+=

2

1( 1)2

x u

= +

dx udu

=

So,

32332

3132 12 12 13( )

uu du C dx uduC x u x xC

= = = + =+ =−−+−

∫ ∫ ∫

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