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9905111

9905111

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October 18, 2007 CERN-TH/99-122hep-th/9905111 HUTP-99/A027LBNL-43113RU-99-18UCB-PTH-99/16
Large
Field Theories,String Theory and Gravity
Ofer Aharony,
1
Steven S. Gubser,
2
Juan Maldacena,
2
,
3
Hirosi Ooguri,
4
,
5
and Yaron Oz
6
1
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University,Piscataway, NJ 08855-0849, USA
2
Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
3
School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540
4
Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300, USA
5
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 50A-5101, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
6
Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23, Switzerland
oferah@physics.rutgers.edu, ssgubser@bohr.harvard.edu, malda@pauli.harvard.edu, hooguri@lbl.gov, yaron.oz@cern.ch
Abstract
We review the holographic correspondence between field theories and string/M theory,focusing on the relation between compactifications of string/M theory on Anti-de Sitterspaces and conformal field theories. We review the background for this correspondenceand discuss its motivations and the evidence for its correctness. We describe the mainresults that have been derived from the correspondence in the regime that the fieldtheory is approximated by classical or semiclassical gravity. We focus on the case of the
= 4 supersymmetric gauge theory in four dimensions, but we discuss also fieldtheories in other dimensions, conformal and non-conformal, with or without supersym-metry, and in particular the relation to QCD. We also discuss some implications forblack hole physics.(
To be published in Physics Reports 
)
 
Contents
1 Introduction 4
1.1 General Introduction and Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.2 Large
Gauge Theories as String Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.3 Black
p
-Branes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161.3.1 Classical Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161.3.2 D-Branes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201.3.3 Greybody Factors and Black Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2 Conformal Field Theories and AdS Spaces 30
2.1 Conformal Field Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302.1.1 The Conformal Group and Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312.1.2 Primary Fields, Correlation Functions, and Operator ProductExpansions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322.1.3 Superconformal Algebras and Field Theories . . . . . . . . . . . 342.2 Anti-de Sitter Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362.2.1 Geometry of Anti-de Sitter Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362.2.2 Particles and Fields in Anti-de Sitter Space . . . . . . . . . . . 452.2.3 Supersymmetry in Anti-de Sitter Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472.2.4 Gauged Supergravities and Kaluza-Klein Compactifications . . . 482.2.5 Consistent Truncation of Kaluza-Klein Compactifications . . . . 52
3 AdS/CFT Correspondence 55
3.1 The Correspondence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553.1.1 Brane Probes and Multicenter Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613.1.2 The Field
Operator Correspondence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623.1.3 Holography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653.2 Tests of the AdS/CFT Correspondence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 681
 
3.2.1 The Spectrum of Chiral Primary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . 703.2.2 Matching of Correlation Functions and Anomalies . . . . . . . . 783.3 Correlation Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803.3.1 Two-point Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823.3.2 Three-point Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 853.3.3 Four-point Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 893.4 Isomorphism of Hilbert Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 903.4.1 Hilbert Space of String Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 913.4.2 Hilbert Space of Conformal Field Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . 963.5 Wilson Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 983.5.1 Wilson Loops and Minimum Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 983.5.2 Other Branes Ending on the Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1033.6 Theories at Finite Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1043.6.1 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1043.6.2 Thermal Phase Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
4 More on the Correspondence 111
4.1 Other AdS
5
Backgrounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1114.1.1 Orbifolds of 
AdS 
5
×
5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1134.1.2 Orientifolds of 
AdS 
5
×
5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1184.1.3 Conifold theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1214.2 D-Branes in AdS, Baryons and Instantons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1294.3 Deformations of the Conformal Field Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1344.3.1 Deformations in the AdS/CFT Correspondence . . . . . . . . . 1354.3.2 A c-theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1374.3.3 Deformations of the
= 4
SU 
(
) SYM Theory . . . . . . . . 1384.3.4 Deformations of String Theory on
AdS 
5
×
5
. . . . . . . . . . . 144
5 AdS
3
150
5.1 The Virasoro Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1505.2 The BTZ Black Hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1525.3 Type IIB String Theory on
AdS 
3
×
3
×
4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1555.3.1 The Conformal Field Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1555.3.2 Black Holes Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1595.3.3 Matching of Chiral-Chiral Primaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1625.3.4 Calculation of the Elliptic Genus in Supergravity . . . . . . . . 1672

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