Temple of Learning
GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM
This period is marked by the entry of the Aryans, who were originally inhabitants of Central Asiaaround the Caspian Sea and probably came through the Hindukush Mountains. The period inwhich they existed was between
1500-600 BC.The Main Features of the Aryans were:
i)They were admirers of nature and worshipped the Sun, Fire and Water.ii)Indra was an important deity for the Aryans.iii)Metal iron was used for the first time during this period in
The following religious books were written during this period
These were their most sacred books.(These are also the oldest known books of Indus Valley Civilization). They were four innumber, viz. :a)
–The oldest, and it contained prayers of God, Vayu, Varun, Indra and Agni. b)
–It dealt with music.c)
–It dealt with formulae, sacrifices and rituals.d)
–It dealt with medicines.
They are the foundation stones of Indian Philosophy and are 108 in number.
4.Rise of Religions
The two major religions that came into prominence after the vedic period:
- Initiated by a Kshatriya prince of the Shakya clan, Siddhartha, (who later came to be known as
) around 6th century BC. Siddhartha was born in 567 BC at
inKapilavastu (present day Nepal). He was the son of king Shuddhodhana. He went in search of truth and attained enlightenment under a pipal tree at
, and delivered his first sermonsat Sarnath in U.P. He died at Kushinagar in U.P.The main Buddhist teachings of the eight–fold path of right faith, thought, action, livelihood, efforts,speech, remembrance and concentration, belief in nirvana (freedom from the cycle of birth and death),ahimsa and law of karma were recorded in Triptikas, the religious book of Buddhists.
- Initiated by Rishabha (a Kshatriya prince), Jainism attained peak under VardhamanaMahavira (the 24th Tirthankara). Mahavira was born at Kundagrama in 540 BC at Bihar, andattained perfect knowledge ‘Kaivalya’ after he became an ascetic at the age of 30. He became a‘Jina’ (one who has conquered happiness and misery) and died at Pavapuri (present day Bihar).