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ผนวกแผนที่ 8

ผนวกแผนที่ 8

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Published by Kamolpan Jammapat

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Published by: Kamolpan Jammapat on Feb 03, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/11/2014

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 Pre-Reading Questions.
Look at the picture 3.14-3.24 and answer these questions.1.
 
What do we call this equipment that uses radio waves tofind the position of things and watch their movement?
Suggested answer 
:Radar.2. Where can we see it?
Suggested answer 
: Airport or weather office.3. What is can be seen in picture 3.16?
Suggested answer 
: Polar-orbiting satellite.4. How high does it orbit around the earth?
Suggested answer 
: About 870 km. high.5.How long does it take for one orbit?
Suggested answer 
: It takes approximately 1 hour 42 minutes.
Reading Passage 
Now read the given passage below. You can look up themeaning of the words in
 bold
in the Vocabulary StudySection that follows.
3.1 Radar 
As well as the Windprofiler
 radars
, there is a network of weather radars that provides a picture of the distribution of rainfall. From the radar it is possible to work out where it israining and how heavy the rain is. The network includes sites
 
provided by the Republic of Ireland and the States of Jerseyand covers the whole of the British Isles. Extensive radarinformation from the continent is also available.
3.2 Satellites
Since the first meteorological
satellite
was placed inorbit in 1960, satellites have become essential tools forweather forecasters. The satellites used by meteorologists fallinto two categories.Polar-orbiting satellites pass around the earth from poleto pole at a height of about 870 km. It takes approximately 1hour 42 minutes for the satellite to complete its orbit, bywhich time the earth has rotated by about 25 degrees.Geostationary satellites remain over the equator,stationary with respect to the earth. This is achieved byhaving the satellite in orbit at a height of about 36,000 km.At this height it takes exactly 24 hours to complete one orbit,so it always views the same part of the globe.Meteosat , the name given to the European geostationarysatellites, like their US, Japanese and Indian counterparts, give
sequences
of cloud images. From these, the development andmovement of weather systems can be followed and, of particular importance, tropical storms can be tracked.
 
3.3 Analysis
The Global Telecommunication System (GTS) has been set upto
transfer 
weather observations (and forecasts) around theworld. The Telecommunications Centre at Met OfficeHeadquarters in Exeter has the role of passing data betweenWashington and continental Europe via Paris and Offenbach.It also collects observations from the UK and transmits themaround the world via the GTS. A complete set of observationsfrom the UK is available about ten minutes past the hour of observation.The observations at a specific time are
 plotted
on a chartand an analysis is produced by the computer. This involvesisobars (lines of constant pressure) being drawn, which allowsdepressions and anticyclones to be identified. The analysismay be modified by the forecasters and fronts are added (withthe aid of satellite and radar information) in order tounderstand what is going on in the atmosphere.
3.4 Forecast 
The use of computers has played a key role inimproving the accuracy and detail of weather forecasts, and inlengthening the period for which useful guidance can begiven. The calculations involved are both numerous andcomplex and must be performed quickly so that forecasts are

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