1/
ENERGY BANDS
IN
SOLIDS
In
this
chapter
we
begin with a review of the basic atomic properties of
matter
leading to discrete electronic energy levels
in
atoms. We find
that
these energy levels are spread
into
energy
bands
in a crystal.This
bandstructure
allows us to distinguish between
an
insulator, asemiconductor,
and
a metal.
1-1
CHARGED
PARTICLES
The
charge,
or
quantity,
of negative electricity
and
the mass of
the
electron
have
been found to be
1.60
X
10-
19
C (coulomb)
and
9.11
X
10-
31
kg, respectively.
The
values of
many
important
physical
constants
are given in Appendix
A,
and
a list of conversion factors
and
prefixes is given
in
Appendix B. Some idea of
the
number
of electrons
per
second
that
represents
current
of
the
usual order of magnitude isreadily possible. F'or example, since
the
charge
per
electron is1.60 X
10-
19
C,
the number
of electrons
per
coulomb is
the
reciprocalof this
nutnber,
or
approximately, 6 X 10
18
Further,
since a
current
of 1 A (ampere) is
the
flow of
1
Cis,
then
a
current
of only 1 pA
(1
pico-ampere,
or
10-
12
A) represents the motion of approximately
6
millionelectrons
per
second.
Yet
a
current
of
1
pAis so small
that
considerabledifficulty is experienced in
attempting
to measure it.
The
charge of a positive ion is
an
integral multiple of
the
chargeof the electron, although
it
is
of opposite sign.
For the
case of singlyionized particles, the charge
is
equal to
that
of the electron.
For
the
case of doubly ionized particles, the ionic charge is twice
that
of
the
electron.
The
mass of an
atom
is expressed as a
number
that
is based on
the
choice of
the
atomic weight of oxygen equal
to
16.
The
mass of ahypothetical
atom
of atomic weight
unity
is,
by
this definition, one-sixteenth
that
of the mass of monatomic oxygen
and
has been calcu-
lated to
be 1.66 X
10-
27
kg. Hence,
to
calculate the
mass
in
kilograms
1