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Antenna Tilt Guidelines

Antenna Tilt Guidelines

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Published by: Jorge Romeo Gaitan Rivera on Feb 03, 2010
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Antenna Downtilt Guideline 
1 (6)1999-09-29
ANTENNA DOWNTILT GUIDELINE
 
Antenna Downtilt Guideline 
2 (6)1999-09-29
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1INTRODUCTION..............................................................................................32ANTENNAS......................................................................................................3
2.1The Antenna diagram...............................................................................................3
2.1.1Gain....................................................................................................................32.1.2Horizontal beamwidth..........................................................................................32.1.3Vertical beamwidth..............................................................................................32.1.4First null beamwidth.............................................................................................52.1.5Null-fill.................................................................................................................52.1.6Back-lobe............................................................................................................6
2.2Mechanical versus electrical tilt..............................................................................62.3Super high gain antennas........................................................................................82.4Theoretical tilt-effects...............................................................................................8
3MEASUREMENTS.........................................................................................12
3.1Signal strength MEASUREMENTS in forward direction.......................................13
3.1.118 dBi Antennas................................................................................................133.1.215 dBi antennas................................................................................................15
3.2Signal strength MEASUREMENTS in side direction.............................................173.3Signal strength MEASUREMENTS in Backward direction...................................19
4RECOMMENDATIONS..................................................................................20
4.1General recommendations.....................................................................................204.2Recommended tilt-values.......................................................................................22
4.2.1Areas with large cells.........................................................................................224.2.2Areas with small cells........................................................................................22
5CONCLUSION................................................................................................23
 
Antenna Downtilt Guideline 
3 (6)1999-09-29
1 INTRODUCTION
With an increasing capacity demand, and a limited frequency spectrum,the operators are forced to utilise the frequency spectrum moreefficiently. High capacity frequency planning techniques are often basedon tight frequency reuse. The networks become interference limited, andin order to maximise the capacity, every available technique to minimiseinterference becomes important. As the capacity demand increases, the network plans also becometighter. A macro-cell site-site distance down to 400 meter or less is notunusual. With shorter site-to-site distances, limiting the interference fromeach cell becomes more and more important. When the cells are verysmall, down tilt can be applied without loss of coverage. Compared to notilt at all, downtilt can even improve coverage in these dense networks. A well-chosen overall tilt-strategy can lower the overall interference inthe network. A too aggressive down tilting strategy will however lead toan overall loss of coverage. In addition to a general down tilt strategy,applied in all cells, down tilt can be used to solve specific problems, for example local interference problems or cells that are too large.
2 ANTENNAS
2.1 THE ANTENNA DIAGRAM2.1.1 Gain
The antenna diagrams show the antenna gain, in a given direction,relative an isotropic antenna. The maximum gain for an antenna can beincreased by narrowing the horizontal and/or the vertical beam width.Typical for a three sector site is a 65
°
horizontal beam width with amaximum gain of 15 or 18 dBi.
2.1.2 Horizontal beamwidth
The standard antennas for a three-sector site has a horizontal beamwidth, also referred to as the “half power beam width”, of 65
°
. Thismeans that the gain is 3 dB less at +/- 32.5
°
(i.e. half power) than themaximum gain in the 0
°
direction. At 60
°
(i.e. the theoretical cell border between the sectors), the gain is suppressed typically 10 dB.
2.1.3 Vertical beamwidth
The most interesting part of the antenna pattern when it comes to tiltingis the vertical antenna-gain pattern in the forward direction. A 15 dBiantenna usually has a vertical half power beam width of around 15
°
(i.e.

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