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AP U.S. History Semester 1 Review (Part 2)

AP U.S. History Semester 1 Review (Part 2)

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AP U.S. History Semester 1 Review
 –
Part 2
French Colonization
Quebec, Montreal, St. Louis, St. Lawrence River in 1608The French traded fur with Indians, better relations & alliances with nativesThey were mainly Catholic and JesuitDid not try to convert natives; intermarried with Indians
coureurs de bois
 
 –
f r traders and trappers
First successful English settlement in N. America
Jamestown, Virginia 1607
When/where was it established?
Jamestown, Virginia 1607Founded by the London Company (later to become the Virginia Company)
Indentured servants
 
 –
worked under a contract for a 7 years exchange forfood, clothing, lodging, passage to America; after that, free and receive land
Headright system
 
 –
50 acres of land ranted to new settlers, colonists get 100acres; encouraged families to migrate together = more heads = more land
New England
 Longer live-
expectancy, greater family (‘cos they migrated together)
,population growth = natural reproductionFemales = inferior under paternalismOrganized town and church (English model); theocracyDiverse econ like English
Chesapeake
 Farm / plantation (tobacco); spread-out population, slow growthFemales = widowarchy = more freedom, since males died young (6 W : 1 M)
Mayflower Compact
: 1
st
social agreement, established civil government andproclaimed allegiance to king; pilgrims arrived at Plymouth Rock Dec 21,1620
Importance of First Great Awakening (freedom of religion, separation of church and state, etc)
Separation of church and state, religious freedom and toleration,establishment of Ivy League colleges
Enlightenment (long term impact on America)
John Locke impacted the American Declaration of IndependenceUndermined traditional authority, encouraged education, heightenedinterest in politics; govt = between people and leader, not GodReason & scientific inquiry; increased interest in scientific knowledge
Jonathan Edwards
 
Sinners in the Hand of an Angry God
” spread revival by preaching; i
nstilledfear into others so that they would become more religious
Religious tolerance/freedom:
Religious freedom/toleration was a legacy of the 1
st
Great AwakeningOnly Christian related religions were tolerated, some attempted to convertNative Americans
George Whitefield
Succeeded John Wesley as leader of the Calvinistic Methodists in EnglandPromoted religious revivalismWent on a missionary journey to New World that sparked the start of theGreat Awakening
The Triangle Trade
 
 –
New England (rum)
Africa (slaves)
Caribbean /West Indies (molasses)
back to N.E.
Middle Passage
 
 –
The passage Africans took from Africa to the New World aspart of the Atlantic Slave trade; any died because Africans were packedtightly into the ships
Mercantilism
 –
mother country using colonies as a source of raw materialsand market for finished goods
Boston Massacre
 British soldiers = job competitions with colonists = angry, 3/5/1770
 –
British
soldiers vs. “Liberty Boys” = open fire
 Led to Administration of Justice Act
Boston Tea Party
 Colonists did not allow British ships to unload
 –
Boston allowed
 –
upsetcolonists
 –
dress up as Mohawks and dumped tea into Boston HarborLed to Intolerable Acts (Coercive + Quebec Act)
Non-importation associations
Stop all trade with Britain to hurt their economy
Thomas Paine
Common Sense, argue for independence from Britain
Declaration of Independence
Declared independence of colonies from British controlWritten by Thomas Jefferson and was ratified on July 4, 1776
Constitution was adopted in 1788Father of Constitution
James Madison, ‘cos he influenced it, e.g. Bill of Rights
 
Washington’s Farewell Address
 
 –
Asked to maintain neutrality, warning of political factions
Revolution of 1800
 –
1
st
peaceful political transfer between 2 parties
Which reports of Hamilton were accepted?
The debt, mint, and currency
Which reports of Hamilton were not accepted?
Manufacturing, ‘cos of tariffs on imports
 
Virginia Dynasty
 –
Jefferson
 –
Madison
 –
Monroe; all from VA
Northwest Ordinance
Guidelines for state admission to Union; prohibit slavery in NW territories
2
nd
Great Awakening
 Mormons
 –
Joseph Smith; Shakers
 –
Mother Ann Lee; Transcendentalists
 –
 Henry David ThoreauHorace Mann
 –
 
“Father of Education” –
children should be molded,discouraged corporal punishment, established state teacher training program
 –
made it a professionDorothea Dix
 –
 
“Dragon Lady” –
more humane system for mentally ill people;humans are capable of self-improvementTemperance Movement
 –
no alcohol; Beecher Family, Frances WillardAbolitionist Movement
 –
get rid of slavery
Women’s Rights –
Carrie Chapman Catt, Seneca Fall, 1848, gender equality
Paternalism
: treat like children
 –
going to church, curfew, dormitory, novulgar language (Lowell Factory)Early: fatherly relationship between workers and employees
French and Indian War
 French + Natives vs. British over colonial disputesBritish won; French lost West Indies land, Canada, and Mississippi (not newOrleans) to Britain under Peace of Paris 1763
Constitutional Convention 1787
Aka Philadelphia Convention; attempted to amend Article of Confederation
 –
 
couldn’t ‘cos only 12 states showed up (must have 13/13)
 Result: created new Constitution
Shay’s Rebellion
 
 –
helped spark changes to Article of Confederation, led toConstitution
XYZ Affair
 
 –
French demanded bribery before they would negotiate
 
AP U.S. History Semester 1 Review
 –
Part 2
Alien and Sedition Acts
 Alien
 –
placed obstacles on aliens: longer time to neutralize, allowedpresident to deport aliens out of countrySedition
 –
allowed govt to arrest those who opposed the govt.Aimed to punish Democrat-Republicans
King Andrew
 –
 
‘cos of use of 
vetoes
Ostend Manifesto
Offered to buy Cuba from Spain as new slave state
Manifest Destiny
President Polk
God given rights for whites American to expand from “sea to shining sea”
 
54°40’ or Fight
 
Oregon Territory dispute with Britain (at border of Canada)Resolved at 49
th
Parallel at Treaty of 1846Symbolized good relationship between U.S. and Brit.
War of 1812
Chesapeake Affair (impressments)Indian disputesWar Hawks wanted expansion (Canada and West)
Causes and Results of Mexican American War
Long-term Causes
-
 
Manifesto Destiny-
 
California (Polk wanted Pacific Ocean; West = cotton; trade with China)
Immediate Causes
-
 
Texas Annexation 1845-
 
Failure of Slidell Mission-
 
Border Dispute
 –
southern border at Rio Grande vs. Nueces River
Effects
-
 
Thoreau’s
Civil Disobedience
 -
 
Mexican Cession-
 
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo-
 
Slavery Imbalance
Civil War
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Ended Mexican War
 –
Polk sent Nicholas TristFeb. 2
nd
, 1848: Mexican ceded CA, NM, UT, NV (southwest territories)Acknowledge TX border line at Rio GrandeU.S. paid $15 million to Mexico
Wilmot Proviso
Antislavery DemocratIntroduced amendment to the appropriation bill prohibiting slavery interritories acquired from Mexico
Compromise of 1850 (who, what)
Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John Calhoun, Stephen Douglas1. California is free state2. Popular Sovereignty to decide issue of slavery in states3. Abolish slave trade, not slavery, in D.C.4. New fugitive laws:
can’t
hide slaves & police must return runaway slaves
Popular Sovereignty (what it was, who proposed it)
Let the people of each new state decide whether they wanted to beadmitted into the Union as free or slave stateStephen A. Douglas
Immigrants
West
 –
CA gold rush, Chinese malesNew Stock
 –
S/E Europe, Italian, Greek, German, Russian, Portugal, Bulgarian,Turkish, Polish; Catholics; settled in North and Mid-WestOld
 –
N/W Europe, British, Irish, French, Czech, Belgium, Swish, Dutch;Protestants; settled NE and NWFaced poverty, religious / political persecution
Henry Bessemer
 –
inventor, manufacture of steel
 –
open-hearth process
Thomas Edison
 –
inventor, electric lightning, telephone = rapid industrializ.
Role of Railroad in industrialization and farming (steel, coal)
 Railroads were used to transport finished goods and people west, use coalsas natural power source; railroad + steel = drive
revolution 1800’s
 New steel technique - Bessemer process converted iron to steel
Sherman Antitrust Act
: July 1890, had no impact, not enforced, poorlywritten; designed to regulate monopolies
Affect of industrialization on society (emergence of middle class,emergence of unions, concentration of wealth, loss of certain jobs totechnology industry)
Industrialization- resulted in immigrants coming from Northern Europe,Ireland, England as well as southern and eastern EuropeansLed to little job security and unsafe/ unhealthy working conditionsWomen and children join the workforce
paid lessUnions were formed in an attempt to fight against poor work conditionsNational Labor Union founded in 1866 by William H. SylvisWomen were excluded from the Unions because they were thought to bethe cause of lowered wagesSocial gap
 –
really wealth or really poorUnskilled + machines replaced skilled artisans
Horatio Alger (social mobility, rags to riches)
A poor boy from a small town went to the big city to seek his fortune
Wounded Knee
: The last major battle / massacre with Indians; between theSioux Indians and the US. December 29, 1890.
A Century of Dishonor
 Helen Hunt Jackson, book on how American never keep compromises /treaties with natives, exposed injustice
Radical Republicans / Abolitionists (who, what did they want, economic &societal goal)
R.R.: Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner, Benjamin WadeAbol.: Frederick Douglas, Harriet Tubman, William Garrison
Freedman’s Bureau –
help blacks13
th
AmendmentIndustrialize South
Tallmadge Amendment
Prohibit further introduction of slaves into Missouri & gradual emancipationwhen Missouri applied to become state
Population dynamics from 1800:
What areas were growing: Northeast/NorthwestImmigrants: German & Irish, Germans: Midwest (farms), Irish (Northeast,manufacturing factories)
Redeemers
Powerful, wealthy class in South tried to return South to antebellum
Carpetbaggers
Northern Republicans sent to reconstruct South
Scalawags
Poor white southerners who helped with reconstruction; tried to overturnsocial status
Exodusters
Slaves who went to Kansas
‘cos of Homestead Act
 
Why Ex-slaves Did Not Move Far After the War
Be with family, not wanted in North, no money
Booker T. Washington & Atlanta Compromise
Education, rights, and privileges of citizenship for blacks, but they muststruggle for econ gains & self-improvement (econ-equality = pol-equality)
 
AP U.S. History Semester 1 Review
 –
Part 2
Seward's Folly:
Purchase of Alaska 1867, Seward bought Alaska from Russia;
criticized ‘cosRocky Mt. hadn’t been filled yet
 
Taylorism
Frederick Taylor
 –
division of labor = allowed unskilled to replace skilled
Ford and the assemble line
Henry Ford
 –
automobile, efficient means of mass production, parts movefrom person to person, people could afford what they made now
Knights of labor
 Founded by Uriah S. Stephens, let everyone in (blacks and women), 1stsuccessful national labor movement, wanted an 8 hr day, equal pay for menand women, no child and prison labor; disorganized
AFL (American Federation of Labor)
 Most enduring and important labor group in the country, an association of craft unions that represented skilled workers, opposition to femaleemployment, concentrated on the relationship between labor &management
NLU (National Labor Union)
 Founded by William H. Sylvis, association that had a variety of reform groupshaving little direct relationship with labor, excluded women, disintegratedafter panic of 1873, wasn't succesful because it was too varied
IWW
 
(Industrial Workers of the World)
 Led by William "Big Bill" Haywood, wanted a single union for all workers,abolish "wage slave" system; Eugene V. Debs
Samuel Gompers
Founder of AFL, represented workers in national legislation, only accept skillworkers
Labor Unrest
Workers had no job security, few were safe from poverty, and industrialaccidents were frequent & severe
Immigration Restriction League
- immigrants should go through screeningtests
Chinese Exclusion Act
 –
Congress passed 1882, denied entry to all
“undesirables” and placed small tax on immigrants
 
Gentlemen’s
Agreement 1908
 Deny Japanese people to work for USSegregated school at San FranciscoU.S. not impose restriction on Japanese immigrants
Rise of Urban
Push
 –
reasons to leave: overpopulation, unsanitary (no sewage system),crimes, violence, corruption, pollution, transportation (to suburbs), cheaperhousing, education, tenement (affordable houses, cheap, overcrowded)Pull
 –
reasons to come: industrial / service jobs, department stores,entertainmentMajor cities: NY, Chicago, Boston
Skyscrapers
 
 –
move up cause no room to move sideways, cities weregrowing upward & outward
Women
 
 –
white collar jobs: clerks, secretaries-telephone operators,department stores (Macys)WCTU
 –
 
Women’s Christian Temperance Union
 Women Rights Movement 1848, Seneca Fall, Carrie Chapman Catt
Margaret Sanger
 
 –
mother of birth control & family planning
Technology for expansion
 
 –
cast iron & steel beams = transportation,buildings, skyscrapers
Schools and Assimilation of Immigrants
Children = compulsory schooling to prevent child labor; high demand foreducat
ion ‘cos
to get specialized skills & scientific knowledge
Jane Addams and Hull house
Shelter for poor, 1889 in Chicago, model for other institutions, sought to helpimmigrant families adapt to language and customs of new country
Initiative
 –
petition for desirable bill by people
Referendum
 
 –
people decide whether a bill by govt to be passed or not
Recall
 –
voters petition to remove an officer from office through population
 Amendments [Progressive]
16
th
: income tax17
th
: direct election of senators18
th
: prohibition of alcohol19
th
: women's suffrage 1920
Muckrakers
 –
exposed corruption of business and govt to public
 The Jungle 1906
 –
by Upton Sinclair; led to Meat Inspection Act, Pure Foodand Drug Act
How the Other Half Lives
 –
Jacob Riis, exposed the poor life conditions,especially of children
Muller vs. Oregon
- justified sex discrimination and usage of labor laws asprotecting women's health
NAWSA
- National American Woman Suffrage Association, Wyoming was 1ststate to let them vote, leads to 19th amendment; founders: Anna Shaw andSusan B. Anthony; leader: Carrie Chapman Catt
Teddy Roosevelt and square deal
Fair econ and social opportunity, attacked trusts, protected businesses
Conservation
Restrict private development on govt land; expanded National Park Systemto protect natural lands and wilderness
Gifford Pinchot
 
 –
1
st
director of National Forest Service, promoted policies toprotect land for carefully managed development; leaked info that Sec of Interior Richard Ballinger sold public lands in Alaska for personal profit
 fired by Taft, progressive alienated
Trust Busting
 –
destroyed
trusts that Teddy didn’t agree with
, only bad ones
 Election of 1912
 
 –
Taft (republican) vs. Theodore Roosevelt (progressive);
Roosevelt upset ‘cos Taft fired Pinchot –
split votes, Democrat Wilson endedup winning
William Jennings Bryant
“Cross
of Gold,
speech to support free silver, he lost, focus on silver, did notform alliance
Bi-metallism
Gold and silver basis for the dollar; populists & democrats wanted coinage of silver = farmers easier to pay off debt; republicans wanted gold (McKinley)
Coxey
’s Ar
my
Unemployed marched to Washington D.C. 1894, demanded jobs from govt
Eugene V. Debs
Head of RR Unions; one of the best-known Socialist
 –
govt regulatecommerce in favor of people; founder of IWW
Alfred Mahan

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