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APUSH Unit 6-Ch 12 questions

APUSH Unit 6-Ch 12 questions

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Unit 6: Industry and Reform Questions 2009-2010Honors/AP American Studies/Mr. WilleckeChapter 12: Industry and the NorthAP Terms:
Lowell, Massachusetts; Transportation Revolution, Erie Canal, Market Revolution,Putting-out system, McCormick’s Reaper, American System of Manufactures
Part I: Preindustrial Ways of Working1.What was Lowell, Massachusetts? What made it unusual? Evaluate the lives of those who lived there. (AP Term: Lowell, Massachusetts)AP Term: Lowell, Massachusetts
Lowell, Massachusetts was a model factory town built in 1823. It had one of thefirst cotton factories, and was also one of the first areas to allow women to work. It wasa transition place for unmarried women to go between the farm with their parents andentering a traditional marriage. For the women, it was a “philanthropic manufacturingcollege” which advertised the classes it provided after working hours. The investorswanted Lowell projected as a town “free of dirt, poverty, and social disorder” (382). Theywere very into perfection, and it was considered a community, not just a work place.This was the very first idea of a business selling itself to its workers. It died in 1850 after people began to turn towards the cheaper immigrant labor.
2.What are the important features of rural life before the industrial revolution(preindustrial)? What were the advantages and disadvantage of this way of living? Include the observations of your own in addition to those of the textbookauthors.
Sense of community and family
Determining your own product’s worth/bartering system
Personal marketplace (you know where everything came from, who madeit…)
No fixed production schedule/seasonal
Run by skilled craftsmen
Everything you do is under the microscope
Isolated values
Mixed home and work life
Fate is set (you’re not going to move very far from where you’re born)Industrial:
Choice and freedom (you choose what you do)
Very separate home and work life
Rise of the middle class
Impersonal marketplace (lack of morality: you don’t care about the personin the sweatshop to make the product because they’re half a world away)
Very strict, monotonous work schedule
 Assembly line—no skill needed, no specialization
Part II: The Transportation Revolution3.AP Term: Transportation Revolution. What was problematic about transportationby road in the early republic? What advantages did Canals offer?
Transportation during most of the year by roads was very difficult. Mud andsnow made traveling by roads slow and uncomfortable. The canals made the shippingof bulky goods was made a lot easier.
AP Term: Transportation Revolution
The Transportation Revolution occurred between 1800 and 1840. There was ahuge improvement in both travel by land and by water. The major government fundedproject that related to roads was the National Road in 1808. The local attempts toimprove local roads were not as successful. The canals were a major part of theTransportation Revolution. They made shipping from east to west a lot cheaper, and thepeople who lived along the canals also gained profits. With the canals came thesteamboats. These shortened the trips upstream, making travel faster. However, oncethe railroads were built, the canals were forgotten. These new methods of transportationallowed for economic growth and people to move west. However, it also broughtdisease and epidemics.
4.What happened to homespun cloth along the Erie Canal? What is the a larger metaphor for? How did the Erie Canal compare to other canals at the time? (APTerm: Erie Canal)
The demand for homespun cloth along the Erie Canal decreased. It wascheaper to buy cloth from passing ships than to buy from people locals. This is a larger metaphor for the decrease in local products, and what would become the IndustrialRevolution.
AP Term: Erie Canal
The Erie Canal was the most famous canal during that time period. It wasproposed by New York governor DeWitt Clinton in 1817. It was finished in 1825. TheCanal (40ft wide, 4 ft deep, 364mi long if you need to know that) made a huge impact.Settlers were drawn from the East to the area, as transportation for goods and peoplewas made relatively easy. Small towns become cities as commerce increased, and themiddle class began to form. The Erie Canal’s success lead to the construction of manyother canals in the United States.
5.In what various ways did the construction of railroads stimulate industrialgrowth?
The construction of the railroads required materials from very many industries, leading tothe growth of those industries. The steel, logging, and mining industries were a few of many industries which benefitted from the construction.
Part III: The Market Revolution6.What were the three interrelated developments of the Market Revolution? Explaineach. (AP Term: Market Revolution).AP Term: Market Revolution
The Market Revolution was a combination of three separate revolutions: theIndustrial Revolution, the Commercial Revolution, and the Transportation Revolution.Refer to Transportation AP Term for information about that. The Commercial revolutionwas the replacement of household self-sufficiency and barter with production in the cashmarket. The Industrial revolution was the use of power-driven machinery for massproduction and take over jobs previously done by hand.
7.The textbook describes the Market Revolution as “the most fundamental changeAmerican communities ever experienced.” Explain how it changed daily lives.
Introduction of a wage system
Rise of the middle class
Increase in waste-output
Deterioration of community relationships
8.The textbook discusses capital at length, but fails to really define it or put it in thebroad context of the field of economics. Do some research and be ready todiscuss capital in broad economic terms. What is the connection between capitaland industrialization?
Industrialization caused a huge increase in capital.
9.What was the Putting-Out-System? Why did it happened when it did (or whydidn’t people do these things before)? How, specifically, did it contribute to moreformal industrialization? How did farmers feel about it? (AP Term: Putting outsystem)AP Term: Putting-Out System
The putting-out system was devised by cheap people who found a way to gaincheap labor. It was an geographically diffused assembly line. A merchant would goaround to farms and drop off a few raw materials. The people on the farm, usually thewomen, would use the raw materials to make a specific part of a product. The merchantwould then come around and pay the family a certain sum per finished piece. Thepieces of the product would all be collected from the various locations, and would beassembled at a certain place, and then sold. It wasn’t previously done due tospecialization. You had artisans to make them. However, the putting out system madeproduction cheaper for the merchants (you only had to pay the workers for the product,not the materials, and there was no value added, because it wasn’t a finished product),and also a lot faster. This was an early form of the assembly line which was essential tothe Industrial Revolution. Farmers were fine with it, it gave them more money. Artisanshated it, because the system destroyed their business.
10.What was so impressive about McCormick’s reaper? What paradox did it create inthe lives of farmers regarding wealth and debt? (AP Term: McCormick’s Reaper)AP Term: McCormick’s Reaper 
McCormick’s Reaper was patented in 1834. It basically allowed a farmer toharvest four times as much wheat than if he were to do it by hand. Farmers rushed tobuy it, and in the years that there was a good harvest, they were fine. However, theyears when they had a bad harvest thrust the farmer into more debt, possibly facingforeclosure. This made the farmers more economically vulnerable, but they farmer alsocouldn’t not buy the reaper because he wouldn’t be able to keep up with other farmers,and would die anyways.
11.What was “The American System” and how did it come to be? What didAmericans figure out how to do that the British had not? (AP Term: AmericanSystem of Manufactures).AP Term: American System of Manufactures
The American System was the concept of interchangeable parts. A productwould be separated into component parts, and an exact mold was made for each. Auniform standard was then established. If a product malfunctioned, you could theneasily replace that part, instead of having to buy a whole new one. The British had notyet figure out how to standardize manufacturing of parts, requiring fewer products to bemade.

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