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Condition Monitoring

Condition Monitoring

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Published by: satya_chaganti on Feb 04, 2010
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07/12/2013

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CONDITION MONITORING
VIBRATION ANALYSIS AND IN-SITU BALANCINGVIBRATION:
It is the motion of mechanical parts back and fort from its position of rest/neutral position.Causes of Vibration:Forces generated within the machine causes vibration.Most common machinery problems that cause vibration include:Mis alignment of couplings, Bearings and gears.Unbalance of rotating components.Looseness.Deterioration of Rolling Element Bearings.Gear Wear.Rubbing.Aerodynamic/hydrodynamic problems in fans, blowers & pumps.Electrical problems (Unbalance magnetic forces) in motors.Resonance.Eccentricity of rotating components such as “V” Belts pulleys or gears. 
COMPARISON OF MAINTENANCE PHILOSOPHIES:
In general there are 3 ways to maintain machinery. 
1. BREAK-DOWN MAINTENANCE.2. SCHEDULED OR PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE.
 
3. PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCEBREAK-DOWN MAINTENANCE
:Break down maintenance is essentially no maintenance at all. The machineis simply allowed to run until complete failure, inefficiency or product spoilage forces a shut-down.
SCHEDULED OR PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
:Compared to break down maintenance, a program of periodic disassemblyinspection & replacement of worn parts has a good advantage of lessening the frequency of break-down repairsand also permits scheduled shut-down.Under this program each critical machine is shut-down after a specific period of operation andpartially or completely dismantled for a thorough inspection an replacement of worn out parts-if any.
PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE
:Predictive maintenance involves the trending and analysis of machineryperformance parameters to detect and identify developing problems before failure and extensive damage.Vibration can takes place in 3 directions i.e Horizontol,Vertical,Axial.Note: Generally in vertical direction vibration amplitude value is low, because weight of the machine is actingon it.If it occurs that vibration is high in vertical direction we can conclude that major problem is there in therotating body.By keeping transducer in the 3 directions vibration is captured individually .
 
The purpose of vibration is to identify effects and evaluate machine condition.Amplitude of vibrating motion are described using the following units.Displacement,mils-peak to peak (1000 mils= 1 inch)Velocity, in/sec-peak or rms ) IRS=peak or mm/secAcceleration ,g’s= peak or rms (3816.1 in/sec2=1g)Frequency=CPM cycles/minute ,cycles/hzPhase is expressed in(deg) in which one revolution of a shaft or one period of revolution.Speeds are expressed in revolutions/minute (RPM)VELOCITY(mm/sec): Velocity is the time rate of change of displacement. It is dependent on both displacementand frequency.
VIBRATORY MOTION:
 The fundamental characteristics of vibration are Frequency, amplitude and phase.
Frequency
: Frequency is defined as no of cycles or events per unit time.
Amplitude
: Maximum value of vibration at a given location on the machine.
Phase
: Phase is the time relationship mentioned I degrees.
Vibration Standards:Machinery Classification in accordance with ISO 2372.

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