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From Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

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Published by Pravin Ram

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Published by: Pravin Ram on Feb 04, 2010
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Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu?????????Chennai
Location of Tamil Nadu inIndia
Country 
32
Largest city 
(seats)Unicameral(235)
66,396,000 (7th)
511 /km
2
(1,323 /sq mi)
130,058 km²(50,216 sq mi)
Footnotes
Established in 1773; Madras State was formed in 1956and renamed as Tamil Nadu onJanuary 14,1969
 Website
Seal of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
" Landof theTamils"
,
IPA:
[t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ]) is one of the 28statesof India. Its capital isChennai (formerly known as Madras) and is thelargest city. Tamil Nadu lies in the southern-most part of theIndian Peninsulaand isbordered byPuducherry(Pondicherry),Ker- ala,KarnatakaandAndhra Pradesh. It is bound by theEastern Ghatsin the north, theNilgiri, theAnamalai Hills, andPalakkadon the west,Bay of Bengalin the east,Gulf of  Mannar,Palk Straitin the south east andIn- dian Oceanin the south.For over 2500 years, the region has beenthe home of the last surviving classical civil-ization of the world, theTamil civiliza-tion.
It is the homeland of IndianTamilsand their 2500 year old classical lan-guageTamil.
Tamil Nadu is the eleventhlargest state in India by area (about the sizeof Greece) and the seventh most populousstate.
It is the fifth largest contributor toIndia’sGDP
and the most urbanised statein India.
The state has the highest number(10.56%) of business enterprises in India,
compared to the population share of about6%. It is one of the foremost states in thecountry in terms of overall develop-ment.
It is home to many natural re-sources, grand Hindu temples of Dravidianarchitecture, hill stations, beach resorts,multi-religious pilgrimage sites and threeUNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Tamil Nadu has lately emerged as themost Literate state in India as announced byHRD Ministry.
As per 2001 census Liter-acy Rate in Tamil Nadu is 73.45%.
History
 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaTamil Nadu
1
 
The Brihadeeswarar templeatThanjavur is one of the largest monolithic temple com-plexes in the world - aUNESCO World Herit-age Site.
Prehistory
Tamil Nadu’s history dates back topre-his-torictimes and archaeological evidencepoints to this area being one of the longestcontinuous habitations in India. InAdichanal-lur, 24 km fromTirunelveli, archaeologists from theArchaeological Survey of Indiaun-earthed 169 clay urns containing humanskulls, skeletons and bones, plus husks andgrains of rice, charred rice andNeolithiccelts, giving evidence confirming them to beof the Neolithic period, 3800 years ago.
The ASI archaeologists have proposed thatthe script used at that site is "very rudiment-ary"Tamil Brahmi.
Adichanallur has beenannounced as an archaeological site for fur-ther excavation and studies.
About 60% of the epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India have been from Tamil Nadu andmost of which are inTamil language
Chera Rule
From early pre-historic times, Tamil Naduwas the home of the four Tamil kingdoms of theChera,Chola,PandyaandPallavas. The oldest extantliterature, dated between 300BC and 600 BC mentions the exploits of thekings and the princes, and of the poets whoextolled them. Cherans, who spoke Tamil lan-guage ruled from the capital of Karurin thewest and traded extensively with West Asiankingdoms. An unknown dynasty calledKalabhrasinvaded and displaced the threeTamilkingdoms between the fourth and theseventh centuries CE. This is referred to asthe Dark Age inTamilhistory. They wereeventually expelled by thePallavasand thePandyas.
Pallava Rule
 Around 580 CE, the Pallavas, greattemplebuilders, emerged into prominence and dom-inated the south for another 150 years. Theyruled a vast portion of Tamil Nadu withKan-chipuramas their capital. They subjugatedthe Cholas and reigned as far south as theKaveri River. Among the greatest Pallavarulers wereMahendravarman Iand his sonNarasimhavarman I.Dravidian architecturereached its peak during the Pallava rule.
Pandya Rule
Pallavas were replaced by the Pandyas in the8th century. Their capitalMaduraiwas in thedeep south away from the coast.Tirunelveliwas their another important city which is theSouth India’s second largest producer of Riceafter Thanajavur.Nellaiappar temple,Tirunelveli andMeenakshi Amman Temple,Madurai are some of the best examples of Pandyan Temple architecture. NellaiapparTemple, Tirunelveli is the first largest Shivatemple in Tamil Nadu.
 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaTamil Nadu
2
 
Chola Empire
Chola Empireunder  Rajendra Cholac. 1030 C.E.
By the 9th century, underRajaraja Cholaandhis sonRajendra Chola, the Cholas rose as anotable power in southAsia. TheChola Em- pirestretched as far asBengal. At its peak, the empire spanned almost 250 million acres(1,000,000 km
2
). Rajaraja Chola conqueredall of peninsularSouth Indiaand parts of theSri Lanka.Rajendra Chola’s navies went even further, occupying coastal Burma (nowMyan-mar), theAndaman and Nicobar Islands,Lak- shadweep,Sumatra,Java,Malayain South East Asia and Pegu islands. He defeatedMahipala, the king of the Bengal, and to com-memorate his victory he built a new capitaland named itGangaikonda Cholapuram.The Cholas excelled in building magnifi-cent temples.Brihadeshwara TempleinThanjavuris a classical example of the mag-nificentarchitectureof the Chola kingdom.Brihadshwara temple is anUNESCO Herit-age Siteunder "Great Living CholaTemples."
Another example is theChidambaram Templein the heart of thetemple town of Chidambaram.
Pandya Rule (Restored)
With the decline of the Cholas towards theend of the 11th century, the Pandyas rose toprominence once again, underMaravarmanSundara Pandya.
Delhi Sultanate
This restoration was short-lived as thePandya capital of Maduraiitself was sackedbyAlauddin Khiljitroops from the north in
Thirumalai Nayak Mahal at Madurai.
1316. The invasion led to the establishmentof theMadurai Sultanate.
 Vijayanagar Empire
These northern invasions triggered the estab-lishment of Vijayanagara Empirein the Dec-can. It eventually conquered the entire Tamilcountry (c. 1370 CE). This empire lasted al-most three centuries.
Rule of Nayaks
 As theVijayanagara Empirewent into declineafter mid-16th century, theNayak governors,who were appointed by the Vijayanagar king-dom to administer various territories of theempire, declared their independence. TheNayaks of MaduraiandNayaks of Thanjavurwere most prominent of them all in the 17thcentury. They reconstructed some of the old-est temples in the country such as theMeenakshi Temple.
Rule of Nizams and Nawabs
 Around 1609, theDutchestablished a settle-ment inPulicat. In 1639, the British, underthe British East India Company, established asettlement further south, in present dayChennai.
 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaTamil Nadu
3

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