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Hydrogen: The Future Source of Energy

Hydrogen: The Future Source of Energy

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Published by: raja on Feb 04, 2010
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07/12/2013

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EE0118
 HYDROGEN: THE FUTURE SOURCE OF ENERGY 
1
L.NANDA KISHORE
2
B.H.KIRAN KUMAR
 Abstract:
The current world wide emphasis on reducing green house gas (GHG) emissions providesan opportunity to revisit how energy is produced and used, consist with the need for human andeconomic growth .GHG reduction strategies must include a greater penetration of electricity intoareas, such as transportation, that have been the almost exclusive domain of fossil fuels. Anopportunity for electricity to displace fossil fuels use is through electrolytic production of hydrogen.Energy storage is essential to accommodate low capacity factor non-carbon sources such as windand solar.Electricity can be used directly to power stand –alone hydrogen production facilities.Electrochemical and process industries frequently flare hydrogen by products to the atmosphere.
Key words:
Green house gas, Fossil fuels, Electrolytic production, Low capacity factor non-carbon sources.
Conclusion:
This paper will discuss hydrogen power conversion methods including fuel cells andcombustion technologies. This paper presents an overview of some of the practical implementationmethods available and the challenges that must be met the process and construction of distributingpower to either the AC power system or DC process bus are examined. This technology isexpected to become cost competitive as energy prices continue to climb and fuel cell proficiencymatures.1. II Year, EEE 2. II Year, EEE
 
NARAYANA ENGG COLLEGE NARAYANA ENGG COLLEGENELLORE.
 
NELLORE.
 
INTRODUCTION:
 
The amount of waste hydrogen produced widely depending on the process in a particular plan . This paper examines alternatives for plants that produce four metric tonnes of hydrogen.Power generation greater than 1MW is the focus of this paper.
I. HYDROGEN BASICS:
The combustion of hydrogen produces no carbon dioxide (CO
2
), particulate or sulpher emissions. As the conventional fuel of choice, progressed from wood to coal then to oil and naturalgas, the percentage of carbon in our fuel as declined and the percentage of hydrogen increased.Taking this progressions to the extreme, one could argue that we will eventually be using 100%hydrogen fuel without the motivation of environmental benefits.Hydrogen has higher energy per unit of mass but lower energy per unit volume. Byweight hydrogen carries 3 times energy of our most --common fuels. The major down side of hydrogen is its poor volumetric energy density, making storage and transportation a fundamentalchallenge. To help resolve this problem the hydrogen industry is currently certifying 1000psihydrogen cylinders .Hydrogen is actually safer than media reports of the past suggest The smallsize of the hydrogen molecule results in free hydrogen (a leak) dispersing very quickly in theatmosphere, and it enhances of creating an explosion are somewhat less than conventional fossilfuel vapors. The great advantage of many electro chemical plants are they continuous productionof hydrogen that may be utilized continuously to produce power.
HYDROGEN-ECONOMY:

Our dependence on fossil fuels present fundamental challenges to our economic security,environmental security and homeland security. We must pursue apromising pathway to a more secure energy future.

Hydrogen can be produced renewably under cal conventional energy sources;the result is fuel flexibility energy security. Hydrogen is well matured withrenewable energy technologies like solar and wind power.

Hydrogen fuel cells generate electricity with no conventional pollutants

Fuel cells produce less CO
2
per unit of work. Usually less than conventionalalternatives.

Transitional strategies like hybrid vehicles will help, but because of vehiclegrowth in use, we would still need to import as much oil; as we import today. Weneed a permanent solution.
 
 
FUEL CELL:
The fuel cell does not generate energy through burning; rather, it is based onanelectrochemical process. The energy conversion is twice as efficient as throughcombustion. There are little or no harmful emissions. The only release is clean water.Hydrogen, the simplest element consisting of one proton and one electron, isplentiful and is exceptionally clean as a fuel. Hydrogen makes up 90% of the universeand is the third most abundant element on the earth's surface. Such wealth of energy wouldprovide an almost unlimited amount of energy at relatively low fuel cost. But there is a price to pay.The fuel cell core (or stack), which converts oxygen and hydrogen to electricity, is expensive tobuild and maintain. A fuel cell is electrolysis in reverse, using two electrodes separated by an electrolyte.Hydrogen is presented to the negative electrode (anode) and oxygen to the positive electrode(cathode). A catalyst at the anode separates the hydrogen into positively charged hydrogen ionsand electrons. On the Proton Exchange Membrane(PEM) system, the oxygen is ionized and migrates across the electrolyte to the anodiccompartment where it combines with hydrogen. A single fuel cell produces 0.6-0.8 volts under load.Several cells are connected in series to obtain higher voltages.

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