Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Research on Talaing Terminology

Research on Talaing Terminology

Ratings: (0)|Views: 2|Likes:
Published by khunsoemoethu

More info:

Published by: khunsoemoethu on Feb 04, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

02/04/2010

pdf

text

original

 
 1
 
wvkdif;a0g[m&okawoepmwrf; tydkif;(1)
(nukuElikjzMwj%ajaY/]ikjelC.wjklaj%.a#.tgun
t*~r[m*EW0gpuy¾dwb'NEWygvdw
RaO\
q&mawmft*~r[m*EW0gpuy¾dwb'NEygvdwtm; Taqmif;yg;jzifhOD;nwI zl;ar#m uawmhygon/)
armfvjrdKifwuUod kvford kif;Xme wGJzufygarmuQa':cifapmEG  J @u rdrda&;om;wJ  h (usdKufxD;&k  d;a'oeSif  hqufEG,fonf  hord kif;eSif  h  '¾m&Dqk  dif&m taxmuftxm;rsm;ud kaumufeKwfwifjyjcif;) ord kif;okawoepm;wrf;rSm rGefud k‘wvk  dif;’ac:qk  djyD; ok  H;eSKef; a&;om;xm;cJ  honf/wG  JzufygarmuQa':cifapmEJ  G@&J @pmwrf;eJ @ywfoufjyD;
rGefq&mawmf=u; t*~r[m*EW0gpu y¾w b'NEWygvw
 urauseyfIuef@uGufpma&;om;ay;ydk @cJ  hwJ  hta=umif;ud k 
vGwfvyfwJhrGefowif;at*sifpD
 
(
IMNA)
rSm zwf&SKcJ  h&w,f/xd kpOfuyif  wG  JzufygarmuQa':cifapmEG  J @&J @ ord kif;okawoe pmwrf;tay:jyefvnfwkef @jyefa&;om;csifwJ  hpdwfu|efawmfY wzGm;zGm;jzpfay:cJ  h  ygw,f/ od k @aomfra&;om;jzpfcJ  hyg/ [Hom0wDord kif;eSif  hywfoufaom pmtkyfwtkyfa&;om;&eftwGufu|efawmfY tvGeftcsdefay;ae&ojzif  ha':cifapmEG  J @ pmwrf;tay: wkef @jyefa&;om;&eftcsdefray;ed kifao;bJjzpfcJ  hygw,f/
'gayrJhrae@u(22/04/2006)ae@rSm rxifrSwfbJTowif;ukrwfvxw trSw(79)
(
qNocjtuicj)
Guiding Star 
 
rSm xyfrHzwf&SK&jyefw,f/ 'DwcgrSmowi;eSifhtw q&mawm t*~r[m*EW0gpu y¾w b'NEWygvw. "gwykuyg zl;jrif&w,f/ q&mawmfb'NEWygvw[m rGefvlrsdK;wdk@&J@ &mrn a'orSmtvGefxifay:ausmf=um;aom q&mawmfwyg;jzpfw,f/ rGefvlrsdK;tm;vkH;wkd@&J@tvGef=unfndk  av;pm;jcif;ukdcH,l&wJhq&mawmfwyg;jzpfw,f/ 'Dpmwrf;tay: q&mawmfb'NEWygvwu tvefrausrcsrf; jzpfjyD;uef@uGufacsywJhpmwapmifudkwGJzufygarmuQa':cifapmEGJ@xod@ a&;om;ay;ydk@cJhw,f/ 'Dta=umif;&mwkd@udkowif;rSm tao;pdyfaz:jya&;om;xm;wmuk zwf&K vku&w,/
u|efawmfonfq&mawmftm; tvGef=unfnk  dav;pm;cJ  haomolwOD;jzpfcJ  honf  htnD,ckvd kq&mawmf."gwfyk  HeSif  hyl;wG  JITowif; ud kjrifawG @&aomtcgpdwfxJuaxmif;ueJ @jzpfrdw,f/ q&mawmfuJ  hok  d @xyfwlxyfr# emusnf;pdwfjzpfrdw,f/ cHjyif;aom pdwfvJ  jzpfay:rdw,f/ rdrdvlrsdK;tm;apmfum;armfum; a&;om;ae=uonf  hvlawGud kwkef@jyefa&;om;oif  hjyD;[kvnf; pdwfxJujzpfay:rdw,f/
 
q&mawmfonftouft&G,ftm;jzifhtvGefaxmufvmjyD;jzpfw,f/ i,fpOfawmifaus;uav;b0rSonfTtouf&G,f  a&mufonf  hwk  difatmifq&mawmfonfrGefvlrsdK;tay: tvGefoHa,mZOf=uD;rm;vsufyif&S  daeao;w,f/ rGefvlrsdK;tay:  q&mawmf. xm;&S  daom rsdK;cspfpdwfwk  d @onf wjym;wcsyfrSyifav#mhroGm;onfud kawG @&aomtcg u|efawmf.vdyfjymyif  u|efawmfvef@vmrdw,f/ q&mawmf.jrif  hjrwfaomrsdK;cspfpdwfu u|efawmftm;ysuf&,fjyKaeouJ  hok  d @ jzpfaew,f/ bmr#ra&;om;bJwdwfqdwfjidrfoufpGm acgif;ik  HcHaeonf  hu|efawmftm; uJ  h&J @&SKwfcstjypfwifaeouJ  hok  d @ jzpfay:aew,f/ a':cifapmEG  J @. pmwrf;tay:wkef @jyefI wckcka&;om;wifjy&efoif  hvmjyD;[kvnf; todw&m; 0ifvmrdw,f/ rdrdonf  q&mawmf.ajczsm;atmufrSajcrSKef @avmufr#yiftzd k;rwefao;ygvm; rdrdtrsdK;om;twGufbmrSrvkyfaqmifek  difcJ  hao;yguvm; owWdvnf;r&S  dao;yguvm; Tod k@TeS,feSKdif;,OfIvnf; pOf;pm;rdw,f/ rdrduk  d,fud k&SKwfcsrdw,f/ &Sufa=umufaom pdwfjzpfrdw,f/ tvGefvnf;pdwfajcmufjcm;vmrdygw,f// wzufuvJq&mawmftay:tvGef*&k%moufrdw,f/ Ttouft&G,fa&mufonf  hwk  difq&mawmfonfpdwfat;vufat; raeek  difao;yguvm; q&mawmftm; pdwfqif;&Japonf  hta=umif;&mwk  d @u q&mawmftm;wckjyD;wckqufvufIjiif;qJaeqJ  eS  dyfpufaeqJyif&S  daeao;w,f/TtwGufu|efawmfonfpdwfraumif;jzpfrdonfTod k @a=umif  hvnf;q&mawmfud k,fpm; Taqmif;yg; ud ka&;om;csifpdwfyk  drd kysif;yspGmjzpfay:vmapjyefonf/ trSefwu,fwGifTaqmif;yg;rsdK;ud ku|efawmfa&;om;onfxufq&mawmf  ud k,fwd kifa&;om;onfud ku|efawmfyk  dIjrifvk  dzwf&SKvk  dygonfod k @aomfq&mawmf.b0urvGwfvyf tcsKyfaeSmifatmufrSm aeae&onf/ tu,fIomq&mawmfonfom vGwfvGwfvyfvyfpdwf=udKufvuf=udKufa&;om;cGif  hom&S  dcJ  hygrlrnfr# aumif;rnf  enf; rnfr#zwfaysmf&SKaysmf&S  dvk  dufrnfenf;[lIvnf; pdwfxJujzpfrdygonf q&mawmfonfu|efawmfa&;om;rnfhaqmif;yg;xuf tqaygif;rsm;pGmaumif;rGefaomta&;tom;/ tcsufvuftaxmufxm; jynfhjynf  hpk  Hpk  HeSif  ha&;om;wifjyed  lifrnfrSmrvG  Jay ,ckrlq&mawmf.b0onfrvGwfvyfay/ q&mawmf.b0onfzdeS  dyfcH rGefjynfolrsm;eSif  htwltvGef&ufpuf=urf;=uKwfaom ppftpdk;&atmufrSm jym;jym;arSmufa=umuf&G  H @pGm touf&Sifae=u&onf  hb0jzpfaew,f/ rGefjynfolwk  d @.b0ud ku|efawmfem;vnf 
 
 2
pmemrdw,f/xk  dxufyd kIq&mawmfb0ud kyk  d  drd kjyD;u|efawmfem;vnfI pmemrdw,f/ a&;csifwk  dif;a&;Ir& ajymcsifwk  dif; ajymvk  d @ r&onf  hb0rsdK;rSm q&mawmfonfpdwfxJrSmusOf;=uyfjyD;emusnf;rSK/cHjyif;rSKtjynf  h jzpfaernfrSm aocsmygw,f// 1960ckeSpfywf0ef;usifwGifq&mawmfonf
[dw*a0oD
rGefoHCmtzG  J @.twGif;a&;tjzpfaqmifcJ  hygonfxkdpOfuyifrGefvlrsdK;tm; ‘wvk  dif;’ ac:qk  da&;om;rSKtay: q&mawmfonft=udrf=udrftzefzefqef @usifuef @uGufcJ  hbl;ygw,f/ ‘wvk  dif;’tok  H;eSKef;eSif  h  ywfoufItpd k;&eSif  hvnf; t=udrf=udrf&ifqk  difajz&Sif;cJ  hbl;w,f/ q&mawmfonfra=umufr&G @H/ rwGef @rqkwf/&J&J @0H  h0H  hrdrd&J @t,lq ud k  trSefwd kif;ta&;om;wifjyrSKa=umif  ht=udrf=udrfaxmifuscJ  hbl;w,f/ eS  ddyfpufcHcJ  h&bl;w,f/ 1974ckeSpfu(*wmyfacwf)pmapmifud ka&;om;xkwfa0rdwJ  htwGufq&mawmfb'NEWodCFeSif  htwlaxmif(3)eSpf uscJ  hbl;ygw,f  f/ od k @aomfq&mawmfonfrrSKcJ  hra=umuf&G@HrwGef @qkwfcJ  hay rGefvlrsdK; tay:cspfjrwfedk;aom q&mawmf. pdwf"gwfonf  oHr%duJ  hok  d @ckdifcef @wnfjrJw,f/ rGeftrsdK;tay: rw&m;apmfum;jyKrlvmv#ifa&S @wef;rSaeI ckcHcJ  hpjrJjzpfonfwkef @jyefcJ  h  pjrJyifjzpfonfajymp&m&S  donfud kyGif  hyGif  hvif;vif;&J&J0Hh0H  hrwGef @rqkwf wifjyajymqk  dcJ  hw,f/ q&mawmf. rsdK;cspfpdwf/ r[kwfrcHaompdwf/ ra=umufr&G  H@rwGef @qkwfaompdwftepfemcHpdwfud k,fusdK;pD;yGm;pGef @vGwfaompdwfwd k @onfu|efawmftwGuf  tm;tifopfw&yfud k tjrJjzpfay:apcJ  hygw,f/ u|efawmf  h.tm;i,fpdwf/a=umuf&G @HwGef @qkwfaompdwfwd k @udktjrJwrf;ajzazsmuf  apcJ  hw,f/ q&mawmfonftjcm;aom&[ef;oHCmt&SifoljrwfuJ  hok  d @Ak'<.w&m;awmfud kyGm;rsm;tm;xkwfjyD; w&m;bm0em tvkyfud k  at;at;csrf;csrf; aqmif&Gufvkyfvk  d&Smayrnf/ rdrd.b0oHo&m0Ëfqif;&JrSvGwfajrmufa&;twGuf=udK;pm; tm;xkwfaqmif&Guf  vk  dayrnf/ odk @aomfwzufwGifrdrd.rGefvlrsdK;b0urvGwfajrmufao;/ olwyg;.aus;u|efb0rSmyif&S  daeao;onf[laom todpdwfu q&mawmftm;ajcmufvef @I[ef @wm;ae[efwlw,f/ wud k,faumif;qHqHud k,fvGwf&kef;I w&m;bm0em tm;xkwfjyD; rdrdb0uk  djrKyfeS  Hxm;&eftwGufq&mawmfYowW  dr&S  ded kifao;yg/ ud k  f,fhvlrsdK;twGufpdwfrat;csrf;ed kifao;yg Tod k @aom tajcaersdK;wGifpdwfvGwfvufvGwfat;at;csrf;csrf; w&m;bm0emud krnfod k @tm;xkwfed  l kifrnfenf;/ rdrdvlrsdK;. tusdK;pD;yGm;ud k  rsufuG,fjyKjyD; wud k,faumif;qHqHudk,ftusdK;ud kom jyKvkyfaqmif&Gufjcif;onf olawmfaumif; olawmfjrwfwk  d@. trltusif  hrjzpfek  dif/r[kwfed kif/ olawmfaumif; olawmfjrwfwk  d @.trlusifhonfrdrd.tusdK;xuftrsm;.tusdK;pD;yGm;ud k OD;xdyfxm; aqmif&Gufwwfonfr[kwfygavm/ trsdK;om;tusdK;twGufrdrd.uk  d,fusdK; aumif;pm;rSKud kpGef@vGwfwwfpjrJjzpfonf r[kwfygvm; Tod k @q&mawmfonfqifjcifpOf;pm;rd[efwlonf/ rdrdud k,fyd kiftusdK;pD;yGm;ud kpGef @vGwfjyD; trsdK;om;wm0efukd  ,ae@wd kifOD;pm;ay; aqmif&GufcJ  honf[ku|efawmfxifjrifrdonf Tod k @aomq&mawmf.pdwf"gwfcH,lcsufud kuG  |ef  fawmfonf  =unfnKdIrqk  H;csD;=uL;Irqk  H;jzpfcJ  hw,f/ q&mawmf.*k%faus;Zl;onfrGefvlrsdK;wk  d @tay:YtvGefxkx,f=uD;rm;ygayw,f  f/ TuJ  hok  d @rGefvlrsdK;ud kxdyg;apmfum;vmv#iftenf; i,fr#SyifoD;rcHwwfaomq&mawmf."gwfyk  Htm;jrifrdaomtcg u|efawmh  ftzk  d @ tb,frSmv#ifpdwfat;csrf;ajr@pGmaeek  difrnfenf; wdwfqdwfjidrfoufpGmaeIvnf;tb,frSmv#ifoif  hygrnfenf;/ Ttouf&Gufa&mufonf  hwk  difwae@w&ufrStem;r,lbJ  trsdK;twGufaqmif&GufaeqJ q&mawmfud kawG @jrif&aomtcg u|efawmhtm; Taqmif;yg;udkra&;rjzpfa&;om;&ef  wd kufwGef;aeouJ  hok  d @jzpfapw,f/q&mawmfonfAk'<bk&m;.om;awmfwyg;jzpfaeonf  htnDapmif  hpnf;&rnf  h0denf;oduQm tjzmjzm wk  d @uvnf; &S  daeao;onfuwa=umif; zdeS  dyh  fcsKyfcsk,faomtpk  d;&vufatmufusa&muf&S  dae&onf  hb0u wa=umif;wk  d @a=umif  h  q&mawmfonfwkef @jyefaompm a&;;om;csifayr  J  hra&;om;ek  difcJ  hbJa':cifapmEG  J @.pmwrf; tay:uef @uGuf&k  Hom uef @uGuf  cJ  honf[ku|efawmfxiffjrifrdygonf/ xk  da=umifhTaqmif;yg;udkq&mawmf.ud k,fpm; a&;om;onf[kqk  dv#ifrSm;rnfr[kwfay/ trSefwGif
rGefvlrsdK;
onfwvk  dif;r[kwfyg
/
wvk  dif;onfvnf;rGefvlrsdK;r[kwfyg/ vlawGurSm;rSm;,Gif;,Gif;ok  H;eSKef;a&;om;ajymqd k  aewm =ujzpfw,f/ wvd kif;qd kwJ  ha0g[m& pum;vk  H;&J @Zpfjrpfud kaoaocsmcsmrodbJ &rf;jzef;ok  H;eSKef; a&;om;ae=uw,fvkd @ u|efawmfajymcsifw,f/
“rGefvlrsdK;udkrGefvlrsdK;vkd@rac:qdk=ubJtb,fa=umifhcifAsm;wkd@u wvkdif;vdk@ac:qda&;om;ae=uovJ” “wvdkif; a0g[m&&J@t"dy`g, tppfrSefuda&moygovm;”
tu,fItxufygar;cGef;wkd @ud kArmppfppfwOD;tm;ar;cJ  hv#ifatmufygtwk  dif;ajz=um;=uonf 
 
 3
“u|efawmfwk  d @usrwk  d @rodyg/OD;atmifaZ,sacwfuac:qk  dok  H;eSKef;cJ  hvk  d @om u|efawmf/usrwk  d @vnf;ac:qk  d  a&;om; rdwmbJ/ t"dy` g,ftwdusud kawmhu|efawmfusrwk  d @vk  H;vk  H;rodyg” [lI&k  d;om;pGm0efcHajz =um;=uayrnf/ “tJ'Dvk  drGefvlrsdK;u
kwvdif;
vkd @ac:qdkok  H;eSKef;a&;om;ae=uwJ  htay: rGefvlrsdK;wk  d @uvkH;0r=udKufbl;qk  dwmud ka&m od=u &J @vm;”vk  d @xyfrHar;cJ  hygrlTod k @ajz=ujyefonf/ “rGefvlrsdK;udkwvk  dif;vkd @ac:qkda&;om;aewmud krGefvlrsdK;wk  d@uvk  H;vk  H;r=udKuf =ubl;qk  dwm u|efawmfusrwd k @ odygw,f/”“'Dvk  dqd k&ifrGefvlrsdK;wk  d @r=uKdufwJ  htok  H;eSKef;eJ @bma=umif  hrGefvlrsdK;wk  d @ud kac:qk  dokH;eSKef; a&;om;ae=uovJ vk  d @xyfrHar;cJ  hv#ifvk  H;vk  H;rajymwwfbJtH  hwwjzpfaewwf=uw,f/ tu,fI “rGefvlrsdK;ud kqJvkdIac:qk  dok  H;eSKef;a&;om;ygw,f vk  d @ajzv#if tvGef&SKdif;pd kif;aom vlpm;rsdK;jzpfoGm;rnfud ka=umuf&G @HIrajz=um;&J=ubJwdwfqdwfpGm ae=uonf/ “vlwOD;ud koltm;rSnf  hac:xm;wJ  hemrnfud kzsufjyD;twif;t"rRtjcm;emrnfwrsdK;rsdK;jzifhxk  dyk*~  dKvfud kac:qk  d&if  &rvm;/Oyrm
‘armifjr’
qd kwJ  hvlwOD;ud k
‘armifjrm’
vk  d @ac:qd k&if&yghrvm;”
armifb
ud karmifbvk  d@rac:qd kbJ
armifbvm
vk  d @ac:qd kvk  d @&ygh  hrvm;” vk  d @ar;cJ  h&iftm;vk  H;uacgif;cg=ujyD;tajzay;=uw,f/ “b,f&rvJAsm
armifjr
vk  d @ rSnf  hac: xm;wJ  hemrnftwkdif; av;av;pm;pm;ol@ud k
armifjr
vdk @ac:&rSmayghAsm”
armifb
uk  dvJemrnfrSnf  hac:xm;wJhtwk  dif;
armifb
vk  d @bJav;av;pm;pm;todrSwfjyKac:qk  d&rSmayghAsm/
armifbvm
vk  d @ac:qd k&ifoludkoufoufapmfum;&musaerSmaygh vk  d @wnDwnGwfwnf;ajz=um;=uayrnf/ “tu,fI tjcm;wk  dif;&if;om;vlrsdK;wk  d @uArmvlrsdK;ud k
Arm
vk  d @rac:bJ
‘brSm;’
vkd @ac:qk  dok  H;eSKef; a&;om;=u&ifcifAsm;wk  d @ =udKuf=urvm;/=unf=unfjzLjzLvufcHek  dif=urvm;” bkawmjyD; ar;cJ  hv#ifArmvlrsdK;tm;vk  H;wk  d@onfrsufeSmarSmifukwfjyD; pdwfqd k; rmefqk  d;jzif  h Tod k @qk  dvm=urSmajym&Jonf/ “[mAsm 'gu|efawmfwk  d @ArmvlrsdK;ud kcifAsmwkd @u &k  dif;&k  dif;ysysapmfum;wmbJtJ'Dvk  dArmvlrsdK;ud k 
‘brSm;’rsdK;
vkd @ac:qk  dok  H;eSKef;wJ  holawGuf  d kw&m;pG  JjyD;axmifcsypfrSmayghAsm/ tpGef;qk  H;ajym&&iftJ'Dvk  dajymqk  dwJ  hyk*~  dKvfud k  jzpfed kif&ifowfud kowfypf&rSm ayghAsm u|efawmfusrwk  d @u vk  H;vk  H;rcHek  difbl;” vk  d @a'geJ @armeJ @w&SL;&SK;w&S  J&S  JjzpfjyD;pdwfqd k;rmefqk  d;eJ @ajz=um;=urSmaocsmygonf/ avmu=uD;rSmtvGefrw&m;ae=uw,fyguvm;/rGefvlrsdK;ud kawmhrGefvlrsdK;vk  d @&k  d;&k  d;om;om;rac:=ubl;/ wvk  dif;qk  djyD;rdrdwd k@pdwf=udKuf  ac:qkdok  H;eSKef;ae=uw,f/ rGefvlrsdK;wk  d @uvJbkrodbrodbJeJ @oufoufrJ  htac:cHae&=uw,f/ rGefvlrsdK;wk  d@taeeJ@emusnf;pGmcHpm; ae=u&w,f/ 'Dvk  drGefvlrsdK;ud k 
wvkif;
vk  d @ac:vd kuf&wmud kbJ/ ArmvlrsdK;wk  d @taeeJ @t&omawG @ae=uw,f/ rGefvlrsdK;ud kwvk  dif;vk  d @ ac:aewm/ rGefvlrsdK;wk  d @ud kapmfum;aew,fvk  d @rjrif=ubl;/ 'gayrJ  hrdrdwk  d @ArmvlrsdK;ud kawmhenf;enf;rStxdrcHed kifbl;/ trSm;rcHek  difbl; qk  d&if&Dcsifp&m rjzpfaebl;vm;/ u|efawmfrSmawG;awG;jyD;[m;wk  dufcg&Dvd kufcsifygao;w,f  f/
atmf- vlowform;=uD;ubk&m;avmif;jzpf/ w&m;rJhwJhacwfvlom;udk;//

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->